Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 11

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 11

This is the final segment in my 11-part series of articles covering the epigenetic factors that reduce the growth of breast cancer cells and breast cancer risk. My intention with these articles has been to show you exactly what nutrients will help you heal from breast cancer, reduce your risk of recurrence, and/or reduce your risk of ever getting breast cancer.

For more information on my personal reasons for putting this information together, see Part 1 of the series.

In this segment, I am sharing the nutrients that prevent metastasis, which is the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. A growing tumor can become invasive and it does this in a few different ways. Malignant cells can break away from the original tumor, and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system, which can carry them to another part of the body. A tumor may also increase production of enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases, or MMPs. These enzymes degrade proteins in surrounding tissues, thus enabling a tumor to spread. Recent research suggests that MMPs are involved in breast cancer initiation, invasion and metastasis. Two MMPs in particular (MMP-2 and MMP-11) have been found to correlate with a poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. [1] So nutrients that can impair a tumor’s production of MMPs, and reduce the invasiveness and metastatic potential is thought to be a good strategy for fighting against breast cancer.

Here they are – the best nutrients for preventing or impairing the metastasis of breast cancer cells.

PART 11 – NUTRIENTS THAT PREVENT OR IMPAIR METASTASIS

Anthraquinones – found in aloe vera, graviola, noni, rhubarb [2]

Beta-sitosterol – found in acai, almonds, amaranth, bananas, barley, black rice, blackberries, Brazil nuts, dates, dragon fruit, durian, flaxseed, goji, hemp seed, kiwi, macadamia nuts, noni, oats, peas, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, raspberries, rice bran, sesame seeds, soybeans, sunflower seeds, walnuts, watermelon, wheat, wheat bran [3]

Biochanin A – found in alfalfa sprouts, astragalus, cashews, chickpeas, kidney beans, pinto beans, red clover [4]

Chebulinic acid – found in amla, myrobalan [5]

Chlorogenic acid – found in almonds, apples, bitter melon, black beans, black raspberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, cherries, chia seeds, chickpeas, coffee beans, durian, figs, goji, graviola, guava, kiwi, lentils, lychee, mulberries, raspberries, rice bran, sunflower seeds, tomatoes [6]

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) – supplement [7]

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – from organic grass fed beef, butter from grass-fed cows raised organically, full fat (preferably raw) dairy products like cream, milk, yogurt or cheese [8]

Curcumin – from turmeric [9], [10]

Delphinidin – found in acai, amla, bananas, bilberries, black raspberries, blackcurrants, black beans, blueberries, cherries, cranberries, kidney beans, maqui, raspberries [11], [12]

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) – found in amla, carob flour, cranberries (raw), hazlenuts, peas, pecans, tea (black, green, oolong) [13], [14], [15]

Fisetin – found in apples, cucumbers, grapes, kiwi, onions, persimmon, strawberries [16], [17]

Gallic acid – from adzuki beans, amaranth, amla, apples, apricots, bitter melon, black raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, cantaloupe, cherries, chickpeas, dates, dragon fruit, durian, eggplant, evening primrose oil, figs, flaxseed, goji/wolfberry, grapes, graviola, hazelnuts, kiwi, lentils, lychee, mangoes, mangosteen, maqui, mulberries, peas, pecans, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, raspberries, red beans, soybeans, strawberries, walnuts, watermelon [18]

Gamma-tocotrienol – found in barley, blueberries, brown rice, coconut oil, cod liver oil, corn oil, cranberries, flaxseed oil, hazlenuts, kiwi, oats, olive oil, peanut oil, plums, rice bran oil, rye, sunflower oil, wheat germ [19]

Genistein – from chickpeas, dates, kidney beans, peas, quinoa, soybeans [20], [21]

Glycyrrhetinic acid – from licorice (the herbal, not the candy) [22]

Isothiocyanates – found in cruciferous vegetables, papaya [23]

Kahweol – found in unfiltered coffee [24]

Lupeol – found in cabbage, carrots, cucumber, figs, grapes (red), guava, mango, mulberries, olives, papaya, peas, peppers (capsicum), soybeans, strawberry, tomato [25]

Luteolin – found in cantaloupe, celery, dates, elderberries, graviola, lemongrass, lemons, lentils, limes, maqui, noni, oregano, parsley, peas, peppermint, pomegranate, rice bran, rosemary, sorghum bran, watermelon [26]

Lycopene – from apricots, bitter melon, dragon fruit, goji, grapefruit, guava, mangoes, noni, papaya, pistachio nuts, tomatoes, red beans, watermelon [27]

Mangostin – from mangosteen [28]

Melatonin – from bananas, barley, black rice, cherries (esp sour), ginger, grapes, oats, walnuts [29]

Modified Citrus Pectin – supplement [30]

Myricetin – from adzuki beans, barley, bitter melon, black beans, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, chia seeds, chickpeas, cranberries, fennel, grapes, guava, maqui, parsley [31]

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) – supplement [32]

Naringenin – from almonds, black rice, elderberries, grapefruit, kiwi, lemons, limes, mandarins, oranges, peas, rice bran, sorghum bran, tangerines [33]

Nornuciferine – from graviola [34]

Psoralen – found in carrots, celeriac, celery, cilantro/coriander, cumin seeds, dill, fennel seeds, figs, grapefruit, lemons, limes, mustard seeds, parsley, parsnips [35]

Silibinin – found in St Mary’s thistle a/k/a milk thistle [36], [37], [38], [39]

Sulforaphane – found in cruciferous vegetables [40]

Tricin – found in rice bran, brown rice [41]

Ursolic Acid – found in cherries, cranberries, elderberries, grapes, kiwi, maqui, noni [42]

Vanillic acid – found in acai, barley, bilberries, bitter melon, black raspberries, blackberries, brown rice, buckwheat bran, cantaloupe, chickpeas, clove, dates, flaxseed, kiwi, mangosteen, maqui, mulberries, peas, pecans, quinoa, raspberries, rice bran, shiitake mushrooms, strawberries, vanilla beans, wheat, wheat bran [43], [44]

Vitamin D3 – found in raw milk, salmon, sunshine, tuna, supplements [45]

Zeaxanthin – found in bananas, barley, black raspberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, cantaloupe, carrots, cashews, cranberries, durian, figs, goji, grapefruit, grapes, green beans, honeydew melon, kiwi, lemons, mandarins, mangoes, mulberries, oranges, papaya, peas, pecans, pistachio nuts, quinoa, raspberries, spelt, strawberries, walnuts, watermelon, wheat, wheat bran [46]

2′-hydroxyflavonone – found in grapefruit, lemons, limes, mandarins, oranges, tangerines [47]

Aspirin – though not a nutrient, we have interesting research on its anti-metastasis potential [48]

This is not an exhaustive list of nutrients that prevent or impair metastasis, there are likely others that have this action. As I find the research, I will add it here. With reference to therapeutic dosages, because much of the research is preliminary and has not been involved in a clinical trial, it is not known what exact amount is required for many of these nutrients to do their work. But because everything listed is nutritional, with no known side effects (outside of the last one, aspirin) my advice is to include as many of them in your daily/weekly diet as you can.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Please do not attempt to treat breast cancer using only a few nutrients or supplements. Cancer is a complex disease and requires a multi-disciplinary approach to be effective. Please work with an oncologist and/or integrative oncologist and/or oncology naturopath and/or functional medicine doctor for the absolute best results.

For more information on other epigenetic factors that reduce breast cancer risk, please see
Part 1 nutrients that can control regulatory genes
Part 2 nutrients that can reduce damage to DNA
Part 3 nutrients that stop rapid proliferation of cells
Part 4 nutrients that ease cancer promoting inflammation
Part 5 nutrients that change malignant cells back into healthy cells
Part 6 nutrients that alter or restore receptors on breast cancer cells
Part 7 nutrients that inhibit excess estrogen production
Part 8 nutrients that trigger apoptosis in breast cancer cells
Part 9 nutrients that block abnormal growth factors
Part 10 nutrients that block angiogenesis

References:

[1] Metalloproteinases: role in breast carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC138784/

[2] 3-Bromo-1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (BHAQ) inhibits growth and migration of the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23985955

[3] Beta-Sitosterol: A Promising but Orphan Nutraceutical to Fight Against Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26473555

[4] The selective estrogen receptor-beta agonist biochanin A shows vasculoprotective effects without uterotrophic activity – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16735947

[5] Chebulinic acid inhibits smooth muscle cell migration by suppressing PDGF-Rß phosphorylation and inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5603554/

[6] A phenolic compound, 5-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), is a new type and strong matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor: isolation and identification from methanol extract of Euonymus alatus – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16005473

[7] Exogenous coenzyme Q10 modulates MMP-2 activity in MCF-7 cell line as a breast cancer cellular model – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3004807/

[8] CLA reduces breast cancer cell growth and invasion through ERalpha and PI3K/Akt pathways – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19800873

[9] Curcumin Suppresses the Paclitaxel-Induced Nuclear Factor-KB Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells and Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Human Breast Cancer in Nude Mice – http://www.jivasupplements.org/assets/applets/Curcumin_Suppresses_the_Paclitaxel-Induced__NF-Kappa_B_Pathway_in_Breast_Cancer.pdf

[10] The impact of curcumin on breast cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22772921

[11] Delphinidin inhibits cell proliferation and invasion via modulation of Met receptor phosphorylation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2989819/

[12] Delphinidin Reduces Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Targeting EGFR/VEGFR2 Signaling Pathways – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3790876/

[13] Green tea polyphenol and epigallocatechin gallate induce apoptosis and inhibit invasion in human breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18059161

[14] Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) downregulates EGF-induced MMP-9 in breast cancer cells: involvement of integrin receptor alpha5beta1 in the process – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21170718

[15] Green tea catechins inhibit angiogenesis through suppression of STAT3 activation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3664280/

[16] The flavonoid fisetin as an anticancer agent targeting the growth signaling pathways – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299916304319?via%3Dihub

[17] Anti-cancer effects of fisetin on mammary carcinoma cells via regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway: In vitro and in vivo studies – https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ijmm.2018.3654

[18] Gallic acid abolishes the EGFR/Src/Akt/Erk-mediated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087131

[19] Gamma-tocotrienol reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells is associated with inhibition of canonical Wnt signalling – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27323693

[20] Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of c-erbB-2 in MDA-MB-435 cells by genistein – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10427135

[21] Genistein exerts multiple suppressive effects on human breast carcinoma cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9809990

[22] Glycyrrhetinic acid potently suppresses breast cancer invasion and metastasis by impairing the p38 MAPK-AP1 signaling axis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828376

[23] Molecular Targets of Isothiocyanates in Cancer: Recent Advances – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4122603/

[24] Anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of kahweol, a coffee diterpene – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153489/

[25] Lupeol, A Novel Anti-inflammatory and Anti-cancer Dietary Triterpene – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2764818/

[26] Inhibitory effect of luteolin on the angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane and invasion of breast cancer cells via downregulation of AEG-1 and MMP-2 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24129732

[27] Lycopene inhibits angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting MMP-2/uPA system through VEGFR2-mediated PI3K-Akt and ERK/p38 signaling pathways – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22707264

[28] Effects of a-Mangostin on Viability, Growth and Cohesion of Multicellular Spheroids Derived from Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5765736/

[29] Melatonin regulates the tumor suppressor miR-148a-3p involved in angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer – http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/77/13_Supplement/1477

[30] Inhibition of human cancer cell growth and metastasis in nude mice by oral intake of modified citrus pectin – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12488479

[31] Myricetin suppresses breast cancer metastasis through down-regulating the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29532526

[32] N-Acetyl-Cysteine Promotes Angiostatin Production and Vascular Collapse in an Orthotopic Model of Breast Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1615662/

[33] Naringenin prevents TGF-ß1 secretion from breast cancer and suppresses pulmonary metastasis by inhibiting PKC activation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4818388/

[34] Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents – https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/485042/

[35] Effects of Psoralen as an Anti-tumor Agent in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7/ADR Cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26902225

[36] Silibinin induces the generation of nitric oxide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20370556

[37] Silibinin suppresses EGFR ligand-induced CD44 expression through inhibition of EGFR activity in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22110198

[38] Silibinin prevents TPA-induced MMP-9 expression by down-regulation of COX-2 in human breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19715751

[39] Silibinin prevents TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and VEGF secretion by inactivation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19181503

[40] Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15953625

[41] Tricin, 4′,5,7-trihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyflavone, exhibits potent antiangiogenic activity in vitro – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498749

[42] Ursolic acid inhibits breast cancer growth by inhibiting proliferation, inducing autophagy and apoptosis, and suppressing inflammatory responses via the PI3K/AKT and NF-kB signaling pathways in vitro – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5639319/

[43] Vanillin suppresses in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of mouse breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15854801

[44] Preventive Efficacy of Vanillic Acid on Regulation of Redox Homeostasis, Matrix Metalloproteinases and Cyclin D1 in Rats Bearing Endometrial Carcinoma – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29062174

[45] Vitamin D3 decreases glycolysis and invasiveness, and increases cellular stiffness in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29216499

[46] Dietary Carotenoids and the Risk of Invasive Breast Cancer –
https://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564658/

[47] 2′-Hydroxyflavanone inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of breast cancer cells by targeting RLIP76 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30136444

[48] Effect of daily aspirin on risk of cancer metastasis: a study of incident cancers during randomised controlled trials – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22440947

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Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 10

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 10

This is part 10 of an 11-part series of articles, covering the epigenetic factors that reduce the growth of breast cancer cells and breast cancer risk. My intention with these articles is to empower you with information to help you heal from breast cancer, reduce your risk of recurrence, and/or to reduce your risk of getting breast cancer.

For more information on my personal reasons for putting this information together, see Part 1 of the series.

In this article,  I am sharing the nutrients that block angiogenesis (angio = related to blood vessels, and genesis = the creation of something new). Once a tumor begins developing and is in its rapid growth stage, it needs a fresh blood supply to feed itself and to migrate into other tissues (metastasize). The cells of a developing tumor have the ability to induce the growth of new blood vessels, termed angiogenesis, and they do this by multiple epigenetic mechanisms. So knowing what nutrients are capable of reversing the angiogenesis process is tremendously important because then you can deprive growing tumors of that new blood supply.

PART 10 – NUTRIENTS THAT BLOCK ANGIOGENESIS

Anthocyanins – found in acai, Anasazi beans, apples, bananas, black beans, bilberries, black raspberries, black rice, blackcurrants, blueberries, chickpeas, cranberries, elderberries, grapes, guava, kidney beans, mangoes, mangosteen, maqui, pomegranates, purple beans, purple carrots, purple sweet potatoes, sorghum bran, strawberries, walnuts [1]

Apigenin – found in celery, chamomile tea, chickpeas, dates, elderberries, grapefruit, guava, lemons, limes, onions, oranges, parsley, peas, rice bran, sorghum bran [2]

Beta-sitosterol – found in acai, almonds, amaranth, bananas, barley, black rice, blackberries, Brazil nuts, dates, dragon fruit, durian, flaxseed, goji, hemp seed, kiwi, macadamia nuts, oats, peas, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa (more on quinoa here), raspberries, rice bran, sesame seeds, soybeans, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [3]

Betulinic acid – found in chaga mushrooms, pomegranate, white birch bark [4]

Chebulagic acid – found in amla, myrobalan (Terminalia chebula) [5]

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a supplement [6]

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – found in organic grass fed beef, butter from grass-fed cows raised organically, full fat (preferably raw, organic) dairy products like cream, milk, yogurt or cheese [7]

Curcumin – found in turmeric; also available in supplements [8]

Durianol – found in durian [9]

Enterolactone – found in flaxseed, oats [10]

Esculin – found in guava [11]

Fisetin – found in apples, cucumbers, grapes, kiwi, onions, persimmon, strawberries [12]

Formononetin – found in astragalus, cashews, dates, red clover [13]

Genistein – found in chickpeas, dates, kidney beans, peas, quinoa, soybeans [14], [10]

Grape seed extract – a supplement [15]

Green tea [16], [17]

Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) – found in cruciferous vegies such as cabbage, radishes, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and daikon; also available in supplement form [18]

Jasmonic acid – found in apples, chickpeas, jasmine essential oil [19]

Juglone – from walnuts [20]

Luteolin – found in cantaloupe, celery, dates, elderberries, graviola, lemongrass, lemons, lentils, limes, maqui, oregano, parsley, peas, peppermint, pomegranate, rice bran, rosemary, sorghum bran [21]

Lycopene – found in apricots, bitter melon, dragon fruit, goji, grapefruit, guava, mangoes, pistachio nuts, tomatoes, red beans [22], [23]

Melatonin – found in bananas, barley, black rice, cherries (esp sour), ginger, grapes, oats, walnuts, also available as a supplement [24]

Nobiletin – found in grapefruit, lemons, limes, mandarins, oranges, tangerines [25]

Omega-3 fatty acids – found in many fish, but best plant source is from flaxseed oil or hempseed oil; also available as supplements [26]

Orientin and isoorientin – found in acai, graviola [27]

Piceatannol – found in blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, grapes [28]

Pomegranate [29], [30]

Quercetin – found in adzuki beans, amla, Anasazi beans, apples with peels, apricots, asparagus, bananas, barley, bilberries, black beans, black raspberries, black rice, black tea, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, broccoli, cantaloupe, capers, cauliflower, celery, cherries, chickpeas, chia seeds, cocoa powder (unsweetened), cranberries, dates, dill, dragon fruit, durian, eggplant, elderberries, figs, gingko biloba, goji, grapefruit, grapes, graviola, green beans, green pepper, green tea, guava, honey, kale, kiwi, lemons, lentils, lettuce (esp Romaine), limes, lychee, mangoes, maqui, mulberries, onions, parsley, peas, pears with peels, peppers, quinoa, raspberries, red onions, sage, shallots, spinach, strawberries, tea (black and green), tomatoes, yellow snap beans [31]

Selenium – found in amaranth, barley, Brazil nuts, brewer’s yeast, broccoli, brown rice, buckwheat bran, chickpeas, chicken, dates, garlic, goji, guava, kelp, lentils, liver, macadamia nuts, mangoes, molasses, oats, onions, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, red beans, salmon, seafood, spelt, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran, wheat germ [32]

Silibinin – found in St Mary’s Thistle a/k/a milk thistle [33]

Sulforaphane – found in cruciferous vegetables, broccoli sprouts [34], [35]

Syringic acid – found in acai, barley, bitter melon, dates, figs, flaxseed, kiwi, molasses, mulberries, rice bran, sorghum bran, swiss chard, walnuts, wheat [36], [37]

Tricin – found in rice bran, brown rice [38]

Vitamin D3 – found in raw milk, salmon, sunshine, tuna; also available in supplement form [39], [40]
2′-hydroxyflavonone – found in grapefruit, lemons, limes, mandarins, oranges, tangerines [41]

This is not an exhaustive list of nutrients, there are likely others that block the angiogenesis process in breast cancer cells. As I find the research and nutrients, I will add them here. With reference to therapeutic dosages, because much of the research is preliminary and has not been involved in a clinical trial, it is not known what exact amount is required for many of these nutrients to block angiogenesis. But because everything listed is nutritional with no known side effects, (unless you are allergic), my advice would be to include as many of these nutrients in your daily/weekly diet as possible.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Please do not attempt to treat breast cancer using only a few nutrients or supplements. Cancer is a complex disease and requires a multi-disciplinary approach to be effective. Please work with an oncologist and/or integrative oncologist and/or oncology naturopath and/or functional medicine doctor for the absolute best results.

For more information on other epigenetic factors that reduce breast cancer risk, please see
Part 1 nutrients that can control regulatory genes
Part 2 nutrients that can reduce damage to DNA
Part 3 nutrients that stop rapid proliferation of cells
Part 4 nutrients that ease cancer promoting inflammation
Part 5 nutrients that change malignant cells back into healthy cells
Part 6 nutrients that alter or restore receptors on breast cancer cells
Part 7 nutrients that inhibit excess estrogen production
Part 8 nutrients that trigger apoptosis in breast cancer cells
Part 9 nutrients that block abnormal growth factors

References:

[1] Anthocyanins and their role in cancer prevention – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2582525/
[2] Apigenin blocks induction of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA and protein in progestin-treated human breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20551847
[3] Beta-Sitosterol: A Promising but Orphan Nutraceutical to Fight Against Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26473555
[4] Multiple molecular targets in breast cancer therapy by betulinic acid – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27810789
[5] Anti-angiogenic effect of chebulagic acid involves inhibition of the VEGFR2- and GSK-3ß-dependent signaling pathways – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28467858
[6] Coenzyme Q10 decreases basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced angiogenesis by blocking ERK activation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22715588
[7] Prevention of mammary cancer with conjugated linoleic acid: role of the stroma and the epithelium – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14587866
[8] The impact of curcumin on breast cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22772921
[9] Plant phenolics in the prevention and treatment of cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21520702
[10] Estrogen-induced angiogenic factors derived from stromal and cancer cells are differently regulated by enterolactone and genistein in human breast cancer in vivo – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19924815
[11] Esculin and its oligomer fractions inhibit adhesion and migration of U87 glioblastoma cells and in vitro angiogenesis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26459313
[12] The flavonoid fisetin as an anticancer agent targeting the growth signaling pathways – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299916304319?via%3Dihub
[13] Formononetin, a novel FGFR2 inhibitor, potently inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in preclinical models – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4792576/
[14] Genistein exerts multiple suppressive effects on human breast carcinoma cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9809990
[15] Grape seed extract (GSE) inhibits angiogenesis via suppressing VEGFR signaling pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802543/
[16] Inhibition of mammary tumorigenesis in the C3(1)/SV40 mouse model by green tea – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17484049
[17] Green tea catechins inhibit angiogenesis through suppression of STAT3 activation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3664280/
[18] Molecular targets and anticancer potential of indole-3-carbinol and its derivatives – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16082211
[19] Methyl jasmonate abolishes the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3576238/
[20] Effect of Pin1 inhibitor juglone on proliferation, migration and angiogenic ability of breast cancer cell line MCF7Adr – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26223922
[21] Inhibitory effect of luteolin on the angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane and invasion of breast cancer cells via downregulation of AEG-1 and MMP-2 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24129732
[22] Chemopreventive effect of lycopene alone or with melatonin against the genesis of oxidative stress and mammary tumors induced by 7,12 dimethyl(a)benzanthracene in sprague dawely female rats – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18682897
[23] Lycopene inhibits angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting MMP-2/uPA system through VEGFR2-mediated PI3K-Akt and ERK/p38 signaling pathways – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22707264
[24] Melatonin regulates the tumor suppressor miR-148a-3p involved in angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer – http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/77/13_Supplement/1477
[25] Nobiletin Inhibits Angiogenesis by Regulating Src/FAK/STAT3-Mediated Signaling through PXN in ER+ Breast Cancer Cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5454848/
[26] Regulation of tumor angiogenesis by dietary fatty acids and eicosanoids – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11142082
[27] Isoorientin induces apoptosis, decreases invasiveness, and downregulates VEGF secretion by activating AMPK signaling in pancreatic cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5161403/
[28] Inhibition of tumor progression by oral piceatannol in mouse 4T1 mammary cancer is associated with decreased angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26297476
[29] Preliminary studies on the anti-angiogenic potential of pomegranate fractions in vitro and in vivo – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14739618
[30] Punicalagin, a polyphenol from pomegranate fruit, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human PC-3 and LNCaP cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28709945
[31] Quercetin Suppresses Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Angiogenesis through Inactivation of P300 Signaling – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152552/
[32] Selenium and anticarcinogenesis: underlying mechanisms – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18827575/
[33] Silibinin prevents TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and VEGF secretion by inactivation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells –
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19181503
[34] Sulforaphane–a possible agent in prevention and therapy of cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21160094/
[35] Epigenetic diet: impact on the epigenome and cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197720/
[36] Syringic acid from Tamarix aucheriana possesses antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing activities in human colorectal cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23745612
[37] Mechanistic Study of the In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibitory Effects of Protocatechuic Acid and Syringic Acid on VEGF-Induced Angiogenesis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29886729
[38] Tricin, 4′,5,7-trihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyflavone, exhibits potent antiangiogenic activity in vitro – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498749
[39] The Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Vitamin D in the Treatment of Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3429709/
[40] Vitamin D3 decreases glycolysis and invasiveness, and increases cellular stiffness in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29216499
[41] 2′-Hydroxyflavanone: A novel strategy for targeting breast cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5650397/

GET MY BEST TIPS on healthy ways to beat breast cancer and prevent recurrences by signing up for my free e-newsletters and e-books on the right. You can also “like” me on Facebook (Marnie Clark, Breast Health Coach) to get my inspirational snippets, news and updates. I promise to do my utmost to keep you informed and empowered on your healing journey… and beyond.

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 9

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 9

This is part 9 in an 11-part series of articles, covering the epigenetic factors that reduce the growth of breast cancer cells and breast cancer risk. My goal with these articles is to empower you with information to help you heal from breast cancer and/or to reduce your risk of ever getting breast cancer.

For more information on my personal reasons for putting this information together, see Part 1 of the series.

In this article, Part 9 of the series, I am sharing the nutrients that block abnormal growth factors. Researchers believe that estrogen, progesterone, and the HER2 oncogene are able to promote abnormal growth of breast cancer cells. Research has found, however, that there are a number of other growth factors that can act on breast cancer cells. Finding out what inhibits these growth factors is a major focus of much new research, and we are learning that there are many epigenetic nutrients that help to overcome this problem.

PART 9 – NUTRIENTS THAT BLOCK ABNORMAL GROWTH FACTORS

Apigenin – found in celery, chamomile tea, chickpeas, dates, grapefruit, lemons, limes, onions, oranges, parsley, peas, pigeon pea leaves, rice bran, sorghum bran [1] [2] [3]

Asperuloside – found in bilberries [4]

Caffeic acid – found in adzuki beans, apples, apicots, barley, bee propolis, blackberries, black raspberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, buckwheat bran, brown rice, chia seeds, chickpeas, coffee, cranberries, dates, durian, flaxseed, goji/wolfberry, hazelnuts, lentils, mandarins, mulberries, oats, peas, quinoa, raspberries, sorghum bran, soybeans, strawberries, sunflower seeds, wheat [5]

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – found in organic grass fed beef, butter from grass-fed cows raised organically, full fat (preferably raw) dairy products like cream, milk, yogurt or cheese [6]

Curcumin – found in turmeric [7]

Cyanidin – found in blackberries, blueberries, cherries, cranberries, raspberries, strawberries [8]

Cyanadin-3-glucoside – found in acai, amaranth, bilberries, black raspberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, cherries, black rice, durian, mulberries, pistachio nuts, red beans, strawberries [9]

Delphinidin – found in acai, amla, bananas, bilberries, black raspberries, blackcurrants, black beans, blueberries, cherries, cranberries, kidney beans, raspberries [8] [10] [11]

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) – found in amla, green tea, peas [12] [13] [14] [15]

Formononetin – found in astragalus, cashews, dates, pigeon pea leaves, red clover [16]

Gallic acid – found in adzuki beans, amaranth, amla, apples, apricots, black raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, chickpeas, dates, dragon fruit, durian, eggplant, evening primrose oil, flaxseed, hazelnuts, lentils, mulberries, peas, pecans, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, raspberries, red beans, soybeans, strawberries, walnuts [17]

Gamma tocotrienol – a form of vitamin E [18]

Genistein – found in chickpeas, dates, kidney beans, peas, pigeon pea stems & roots, quinoa, soybeans [19] [20]

Kaempferol – found in amla, Anasazi beans, barley, black beans, black raspberries, black rice, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, buckwheat bran, cherries, chickpeas, chia seeds, cranberries, dates, dragon fruit, flaxseed, ginkgo biloba, green beans, kidney beans, lemons, lentils, limes, mulberries, peas, quinoa, raspberries, red beans, rice bran, strawberries [21]

Lutein – found in apricot, bananas, barley, black raspberries, blueberries, broccoli, cashews, cranberries, dates, durian, kale, grapefruit, green beans, lemons, mandarins, mulberries, oranges, peas, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, raspberries, spelt, strawberries, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [22]

Lycopene – found in apricots, dragon fruit, grapefruit, pistachio nuts, tomatoes, red beans [22]

Malvidin – found in bilberries, black beans, black raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, raspberries [8]

Melatonin – found in bananas, barley, black rice, cherries (esp sour), ginger, oats, walnuts [23]

Pelargonidin – found in black raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, kidney beans, raspberries, strawberries [8]

Petunidin – found in bilberries, blueberries, cranberries, kidney beans, strawberries [8]

Silibinin – found in the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum) [24]

Sulforaphane – found in cruciferous vegetables, broccoli sprouts [25]

Ursolic Acid – found in cherries, cranberries [26]

Vitamin D3 – found in raw milk, salmon, sunshine, tuna [27] [28]

Please be aware that this is not an exhaustive list of nutrients, there are likely others as well that block abnormal growth factors in breast cancer cells. As I find the research and nutrients, I will add them to this list. Regarding dosages – because much of the research is preliminary and not involved in clinical trials, we do not know the exact amount required for a nutrient to block abnormal growth factors. But because most everything listed is a food item, with no known side effects (unless you’re allergic), my advice is to include as many of these nutrients in your daily/weekly diet as you can.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Please do not attempt to treat breast cancer using only a few nutrients or supplements. Cancer is a complex disease and requires a multi-disciplinary approach to be effective. Please work with an oncologist and/or integrative oncologist and/or oncology naturopath and/or functional medicine doctor for the absolute best results.

For more information on other epigenetic factors that reduce breast cancer risk, please see
Part 1 nutrients that can control regulatory genes
Part 2 nutrients that can reduce damage to DNA
Part 3 nutrients that stop rapid proliferation of cells
Part 4 nutrients that ease cancer promoting inflammation
Part 5 nutrients that change malignant cells back into healthy cells
Part 6 nutrients that alter or restore receptors on breast cancer cells
Part 7 nutrients that inhibit excess estrogen production
Part 8 nutrients that trigger apoptosis in breast cancer cells

References:

[1] Apigenin inhibits HGF-promoted invasive growth and metastasis involving blocking PI3K/Akt pathway and beta 4 integrin function in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17961621
[2] Exposure of breast cancer cells to a subcytotoxic dose of apigenin causes growth inhibition, oxidative stress, and hypophosphorylation of Akt – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25019465
[3] Flavones inhibit breast cancer proliferation through the Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26675309/
[4] Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling in breast cancer: how big a role might it play? – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC138693/
[5] Caffeine and Caffeic Acid Inhibit Growth and Modify Estrogen Receptor and Insulin-like Growth Factor I Receptor Levels in Human Breast Cancer — http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/21/8/1877
[6] Conjugated linoleic acid decreases mcf-7 human breast cancer cell growth and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor levels – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19266226
[7] The potentiation of curcumin on insulin-like growth factor-1 action in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17499312
[8] Human tumor cell growth inhibition by nontoxic anthocyanidins, the pigments in fruits and vegetables – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15680311
[9] Cyanidin-3-o-glucoside directly binds to ERa36 and inhibits EGFR-positive triple-negative breast cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5356596/
[10] Delphinidin inhibits cell proliferation and invasion via modulation of Met receptor phosphorylation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2989819/
[11] Delphinidin-3-glucoside suppresses breast carcinogenesis by inactivating the Akt/HOTAIR signaling pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4937537/
[12] Activation of FOXO3a by the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces estrogen receptor alpha expression reversing invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells
[13] Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) downregulates EGF-induced MMP-9 in breast cancer cells: involvement of integrin receptor alpha5beta1 in the process
Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C)
[14] Epigallocatechin-3-gallate promotes apoptosis in human breast cancer T47D cells through down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and Telomerase – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28646740
[15] EGFR inhibition by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and IIF treatments reduces breast cancer cell invasion – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5434892/
[16] Formononetin induces cell cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells via IGF1/PI3K/Akt pathways in vitro and in vivo – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21932171/
[17] Gallic acid abolishes the EGFR/Src/Akt/Erk-mediated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087131
[18] gamma-Tocotrienol inhibits HGF-dependent mitogenesis and Met activation in highly malignant mammary tumour cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21973114
[19] Genistein targets the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A to induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948957/
[20] AKT and p21 WAF1/CIP1 as potential genistein targets in BRCA1-mutant human breast cancer cell lines – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20651350
[21] Kaempferol, a Flavonoid Compound from Gynura Medica Induced Apoptosis and Growth Inhibition in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566146/
[22] Selective Carotenoid Growth Inhibition in Breast Cancer: Independence of Hormonal Sensitivity – http://www.fasebj.org/content/29/1_Supplement/32.3.short
[23] Melatonin and vitamin D3 synergistically down-regulate Akt and MDM2 leading to TGFbeta-1-dependent growth inhibition of breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21091766
[24] Silibinin suppresses EGFR ligand-induced CD44 expression through inhibition of EGFR activity in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22110198
[25] Epigenetic diet: impact on the epigenome and cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197720/
[26] Ursolic acid inhibits breast cancer growth by inhibiting proliferation, inducing autophagy and apoptosis, and suppressing inflammatory responses via the PI3K/AKT and NF-kB signaling pathways in vitro – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5639319/
[27] Melatonin and vitamin D3 synergistically down-regulate Akt and MDM2 leading to TGFbeta-1-dependent growth inhibition of breast cancer cells
[28] Cooperation between BRCA1 and vitamin D is critical for histone acetylation of the p21waf1 promoter and for growth inhibition of breast cancer cells and cancer stem-like cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4322975/

GET MY BEST TIPS on healthy ways to beat breast cancer and prevent recurrences by signing up for my free e-newsletters and e-books on the right. You can also “like” me on Facebook (Marnie Clark, Breast Health Coach) to get my inspirational snippets, news and updates. I promise to do my utmost to keep you informed and empowered on your healing journey… and beyond.

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 8

Image Source: Dreamstime

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 8

This is part 8 of an 11-part series of articles, all about the epigenetic factors that reduce breast cancer risk. My goal with these articles is to empower you with information to help you heal from breast cancer and/or to reduce your risk of breast cancer.

For more information on my personal reasons for putting this information together, see Part 1 of the series.

In this article, Part 8 of the series, I will share the nutrients that have the ability to naturally trigger apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Apoptosis is programmed cell death, which normal cells exhibit. It’s the ability to self-destruct if they receive signals that the replication process is occurring too rapidly. Tumor cells lose this ability, and this contributes to their rapid growth rate. Due to so many researchers across the world spending time investigating natural substances, we know which ones have the ability to trigger apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

PART 8 – NUTRIENTS THAT TRIGGER APOPTOSIS IN BREAST CANCER CELLS

Alpha linolenic acid – from buckwheat bran, chia, chickpeas, flaxseed, green beans, hemp seeds, macadamia nuts, peas, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, red beans, soybeans, walnuts [1], [2]

Amygdalin – from apricot kernels (inside the seed), bitter almonds, buckwheat, cashews, chickpeas, flaxseed, lentils, lima beans, macadamia nuts, pecans, walnuts [3]

Anthocyanins – from acai, Anasazi beans, apples, bananas, black beans, bilberries, black raspberries, black rice, blackcurrants, blueberries, chickpeas, cranberries, elderberries, grapes, kidney beans, pigeon pea leaves & seeds, pomegranates, purple beans, purple carrots, purple sweet potatoes, sorghum bran, strawberries, walnuts [4]

Apigenin – from celery, chamomile tea, chickpeas, grapefruit, onions, oranges, parsley, peas, pigeon pea leaves, rice bran, sorghum bran [5]

Berberine – from goldenseal, barberry, Oregon grape, Huang bai, tree turmeric [6], [7]

Beta-carotene & alpha-carotene – found in acai, amla, apricots, bananas, barley, black raspberries, black rice, blackcurrants, blueberries, buckwheat bran, carrots, cashews, cherries, cranberries, grapefruit, green beans, hemp seed, leafy greens, lentils, mulberries, peas, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, raspberries, red beans, sesame seeds, spelt, strawberries, sunflower seeds, sweet potatoes, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [8]

Beta-sitosterol – from acai, almonds, amaranth, bananas, barley, black rice, blackberries, Brazil nuts, flaxseed, hemp seed, macadamia nuts, oats, peas, pecans, pigeon pea roots, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, raspberries, rice bran, sesame seeds, soybeans, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [9]

Caffeic acid – found in adzuki beans, apples, apicots, barley, bee propolis, blackberries, black raspberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, buckwheat bran, brown rice, chia seeds, chickpeas, coffee, cranberries, flaxseed, goji/wolfberry, hazelnuts, lentils, mulberries, oats, peas, quinoa, raspberries, sorghum bran, soybeans, strawberries, sunflower seeds, wheat [10]

Capsaicin – from cayenne, chilies, hot peppers [11]

Chlorophyll – found in all green plants and herbs, blue-green algae, grapes, green beans, matcha tea, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, seaweed, spirulina, sprouts, wheatgrass [12]

Conjugated linoleic acid – from organic grass fed beef, butter from grass-fed cows raised organically, full fat (preferably raw) dairy products like cream, milk, yogurt or cheese [13], [14]

Curcumin – from turmeric, or by supplementation [15], [16], [17]

Cyanadin-3-glucoside – from acai, amaranth, bilberries, black raspberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, cherries, black rice, mulberries, pistachio nuts, red beans, strawberries [18]. [19]

Delphinidin – found in acai, amla, bananas, bilberries, black raspberries, blackcurrants, black beans, blueberries, cherries, cranberries, kidney beans, raspberries [20]

Di-indolyl-methane (DIM) – by supplementing [21], [22]

Ellagic acid – from acai, amla, apples, black raspberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, Brazil nuts, cherries, cranberries, pigeon pea seeds, pomegranates, pecans, raspberries, strawberries, walnuts [23]

Enterolactone, Enterodiol – from flaxseed, oats [24]

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) – found in amla, green tea, peas [25]

Eugenol – from cinnamon, clove [26]

Ferulic acid – found in acai, Anasazi beans, apricots, barley, black beans, black raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, brown rice, chickpeas, cranberries, dong quai, flaxseed, grapes, hazelnuts, mulberries, oats, peas, quinoa, raspberries, red beans, rice bran, sesame seeds, sorghum bran, soybeans, spelt, strawberries, wheat, wheat bran [27], [28]

Formononetin – from astragalus, cashews, red clover [29]

Genistein – from chickpeas, kidney beans, peas, quinoa, soybeans [30], [31]

Geraniin – found in amla, pomegranate [32]

Isovitexin and vitexin – from acai, buckwheat, cannabis, chaste tree, fenugreek, mung beans, passionflower, rice bran [33], [34]

Juglone – from black walnut, walnuts [35]

Kaempferol – found in amla, Anasazi beans, barley, black beans, black raspberries, black rice, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, buckwheat bran, cherries, chickpeas, chia seeds, cranberries, flaxseed, ginkgo biloba, green beans, kidney beans, lemons, lentils, mulberries, peas, quinoa, raspberries, red beans, rice bran, strawberries [36], [37]

Melatonin – from bananas, barley, black rice, cherries (esp sour), ginger, oats, walnuts [38]

Myricetin – from adzuki beans, barley, black beans, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, chia seeds, chickpeas, cranberries, fennel, parsley [39], [40], [41]

Nobiletin – from grapefruit, lemons [42]

Peonidin – found in bilberries, black rice, blueberries, cherries, cranberries [43]

Protocatechuic acid – found in acai, adzuki beans, apples, avocados, bilberries, blackberries, blueberries, brown rice, buckwheat, cauliflower, dates, eggplant, garlic, hazelnuts, kiwi, lentils, mango, mangosteen, mulberries, olive oil, olives, peas, pears, pistachio nuts, raspberries, red onion, sorghum bran, strawberries, wheat [44], [45]

Pterostilbene – from blueberries, cranberries, lingonberries, grapes, strawberries [46]

Quercetin – found in adzuki beans, amla, Anasazi beans, apples with peels, apricots, asparagus, bananas, barley, bilberries, black beans, black raspberries, black rice, black tea, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, broccoli, capers, cauliflower, celery, cherries, chickpeas, chia seeds, cocoa powder (unsweetened), cranberries, dill, eggplant, elderberries, gingko biloba, grapes (red), grapefruit, green beans, green pepper, green tea, honey, kale, lemons, lentils, lettuce (esp Romaine), mulberries, onions, parsley, peas, pears with peels, peppers, quinoa, raspberries, red onions, sage, shallots, spinach, strawberries, tea (black and green), tomatoes, yellow snap beans [47], [48]

Resveratrol – from acai, black beans, black raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, dark chocolate, grapes, lentils, mulberries, peanuts, peanut butter, pistachio nuts, raspberries, strawberries [49], [50]

Selenium – found in amaranth, barley, Brazil nuts, brewer’s yeast, broccoli, brown rice, buckwheat bran, chickpeas, chicken, garlic, kelp, lentils, liver, macadamia nuts, molasses, oats, onions, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, red beans, salmon, seafood, spelt, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran, wheat germ [51], [52]

Silibinin – from milk thistle (herb) [53], [54]

Sinapic acid – from Anasazi beans, barley, black raspberries, brown rice, citrus fruits, cranberries, flaxseed, lentils, quinoa, raspberries, red beans, sorghum bran, soybeans, sunflower seeds, wheat, wheat bran [55]

Tannic acid – found in acai, amaranth, Anasazi beans, bananas, barley, berries, bilberries, black tea, chickpeas, grapes, lentils, nuts, peas, pomegranates, quinoa, red beans, rhubarb, sorghum, sorghum bran, squash [56]

Ursolic Acid – from cherries, cranberries [57], [58]

Vitamin C – in most fruit and vegetables [59]

Vitamin D3 – found in raw and fortified milk, salmon, sunshine, tuna [60], [61]

Vitamin E – from amaranth, barley, black raspberries, black rice, blackcurrants, Brazil nuts, brown rice, buckwheat bran, cashews, chickpeas, cranberries, green beans, hemp seed, kidney beans, lentils, macadamia nuts, oats, peas, pecans, pistachios, quinoa, raspberries, red beans, rice bran, sesame seeds, spelt, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [62], [63]

Please note that this is not an exhaustive list, there are likely other nutrients that trigger apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As I find the research, I will add it here. As much of the research is only preliminary, we often do not know the exact quantities of a nutrient required to promote apoptosis so my advice is to include as many of these nutrients in your daily/weekly diet as you can.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Please do not attempt to heal your breast cancer using only a few nutrients or supplements. Cancer is a complex disease and requires a multi-disciplinary approach to be effective. Please work with an oncologist and/or integrative oncologist and/or oncology naturopath and/or functional medicine doctor for the absolute best results.

For more information on other epigenetic factors that reduce breast cancer risk, please see
Part 1 nutrients that can control regulatory genes
Part 2 nutrients that can reduce damage to DNA
Part 3 nutrients that stop rapid proliferation of cells
Part 4 nutrients that ease cancer promoting inflammation
Part 5 nutrients that change malignant cells back into healthy cells
Part 6 nutrients that alter or restore receptors on breast cancer cells
Part 7 nutrients that inhibit excess estrogen production

References:

[1] a-Linolenic Acid Reduces Growth of Both Triple Negative and Luminal Breast Cancer Cells in High and Low Estrogen Environments – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26134471
[2] Growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of alpha-linolenic acid on estrogen-positive breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723055
[3] Amygdalin Regulates Apoptosis and Adhesion in Hs578T Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4703354/
[4] Anthocyanins: targeting of signaling networks in cancer cells – http://journal.waocp.org/article_28931_461e055bbc01eb841e2778463d4935d0.pdf
[5] Flavones inhibit breast cancer proliferation through the Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26675309/
[6] Berberine Enhances Chemosensitivity and Induces Apoptosis Through Dose-orchestrated AMPK Signaling in Breast Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28775788
[7] Berberine-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial-related apoptotic pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25352028
[8] ß-carotene at physiologically attainable concentration induces apoptosis and down-regulates cell survival and antioxidant markers in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28550445
[9] Beta-Sitosterol: A Promising but Orphan Nutraceutical to Fight Against Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26473555
[10] Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC400651/
[11] Capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through caspase-independent pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19212624
[12] The chlorophyllin-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells is associated with ERK deactivation and Cyclin D1 depletion – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16142413
[13] Probiotic Conjugated Linoleic Acid Mediated Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells by Downregulation of NFkB – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509982
[14] Conjugated linoleic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse mammary tumor cells is mediated by both G protein coupled receptor-dependent activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway and by oxidative stress – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3265966/
[15] Targets of curcumin – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3025067/
[16] The Effect of Curcumin on Breast Cancer Cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3706856/
[17] Curcumin and Cancer Cells: How Many Ways Can Curry Kill Tumor Cells Selectively? – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2758121/
[18] Selective Anti-Proliferation of HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Cells by Anthocyanins Identified by High-Throughput Screening – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849376/
[19] Cyanidin-3-o-glucoside directly binds to ERa36 and inhibits EGFR-positive triple-negative breast cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5356596/
[20] Delphinidin induced protective autophagy via mTOR pathway suppression and AMPK pathway activation in HER-2 positive breast cancer cells – https://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-018-4231-y
[21] Bcl-2 Family-mediated Apoptotic Effects of 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) in Human Breast Cancer Cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11931841
[22] Induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by 3,3-diindolylmethane is associated with induction and nuclear localization of p27kip – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18281517
[23] Ellagic acid induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through TGF-ß/Smad3 signaling pathway in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25647396
[24] Enterolactone: A novel radiosensitizer for human breast cancer cell lines through impaired DNA repair and increased apoptosis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27984132
[25] Epigallocatechin-3-gallate promotes apoptosis in human breast cancer T47D cells through down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and Telomerase –
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28646740
[26] Eugenol Triggers Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells Through E2F1/survivin. Down-regulation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3931838/
[27] Lipophilic caffeic and ferulic acid derivatives presenting cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21504213
[28] Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC400651/
[29] Formononetin induces cell cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells via IGF1/PI3K/Akt pathways in vitro and in vivo – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21932171/
[30] Genistein targets the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A to induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948957/
[31] AKT and p21 WAF1/CIP1 as potential genistein targets in BRCA1-mutant human breast cancer cell lines – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20651350
[32] Geraniin induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 via ROS-mediated stimulation of p38 MAPK – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27097871
[33] Vitexins, nature-derived lignan compounds, induce apoptosis and suppress tumor growth – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2752044/
[34] Flavonoid C-glucosides Derived from Flax Straw Extracts Reduce Human Breast Cancer Cell Growth In vitro and Induce Apoptosis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5006111/
[35] Mechanism of juglone-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells by the mitochondrial pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27525860
[36] Kaempferol, a Flavonoid Compound from Gynura Medica Induced Apoptosis and Growth Inhibition in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566146/
[37] Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of 28 vegetables and 9 fruits commonly consumed in The Netherlands – http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf00024a011
[38] Melatonin enhances the apoptotic effects and modulates the changes in gene expression induced by docetaxel in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells – https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ijo.2017.4213
[39] Mitochondrial-dependent, reactive oxygen species-independent apoptosis by myricetin: roles of protein kinase C, cytochrome c, and caspase cascade – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15748703
[40] Myricetin-induced apoptosis of triple-negative breast cancer cells is mediated by the iron-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species from hydrogen peroxide – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29742465
[41] Myricetin suppresses breast cancer metastasis through down-regulating the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29532526
[42] Antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity of nobiletin against three subtypes of human breast cancer cell lines – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24692711
[43] Selective Anti-Proliferation of HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Cells by Anthocyanins Identified by High-Throughput Screening – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849376/
[44] Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC400651/
[45] Apoptotic effects of protocatechuic acid in human breast, lung, liver, cervix, and prostate cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19601677
[46] Pterostilbene simultaneously induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and cyto-protective autophagy in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276376/
[47] Quercetin, a Natural Flavonoid Interacts with DNA, Arrests Cell Cycle and Causes Tumor Regression by Activating Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4828642/
[48] Quercetin induces apoptosis and necroptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells –
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28814095
[49] Involvement of p38-p53 signal pathway in resveratrol-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22260024
[50] Resveratrol suppresses growth of cancer stem-like cells by inhibiting fatty acid synthase – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3404809/
[51] Selenium and anticarcinogenesis: underlying mechanisms – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18827575/
[52] Effects of Selenium Yeast on Oxidative Stress, Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392813
[53] ERa down-regulation plays a key role in silibinin-induced autophagy and apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells –
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26117209
[54] Silibinin induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast carcinoma cells through suppression of nuclear factor kappa B activation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24784867
[55] Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC400651/
[56] Remodeling of tannic acid crosslinked collagen type I induces apoptosis in ER+ breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25750276
[57] Ursolic acid inhibits breast cancer growth by inhibiting proliferation, inducing autophagy and apoptosis, and suppressing inflammatory responses via the PI3K/AKT and NF-kB signaling pathways in vitro – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5639319/
[58] Ursolic acid-mediated changes in glycolytic pathway promote cytotoxic autophagy and apoptosis in phenotypically different breast cancer cells – https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10495-017-1353-7
[59] Ascorbate (vitamin C) induces cell death through the apoptosis-inducing factor in human breast cancer cells – https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6b94/a39c7d7cfb8a951f288e758a4f630e459ecf.pdf
[60] The Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Vitamin D in the Treatment of Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3429709/
[61] Vitamin D3 decreases glycolysis and invasiveness, and increases cellular stiffness in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29216499
[62] Vitamin E Transporters in Cancer Therapy –
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4365088/
[63] Inhibitory Effects of Gamma- and Delta-Tocopherols on Estrogen-Stimulated Breast Cancer in Vitro and in Vivo – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5337152/

GET MY BEST TIPS on healthy ways to beat breast cancer and prevent recurrences by signing up for my free e-newsletters and e-books on the right. You can also “like” me on Facebook (Marnie Clark, Breast Health Coach) to get my inspirational snippets, news and updates. I promise to do my utmost to keep you informed and empowered on your healing journey… and beyond.

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 7

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 7

Today I am continuing with my 11-part series of articles about the epigenetic factors that reduce breast cancer risk, wherein my primary goal is to empower you with information to help you avoid breast cancer, heal from it, and/or reduce your risk of recurrence.

For more information on my personal reasons for putting this information together, see Part 1 of the series.

This article, Part 7 of the series, shares the nutrients that have the ability to naturally inhibit estrogen production, which is important for those who have estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, the most common type of breast cancer. High levels of estrogen – whether produced in the body or from outside sources (termed xenoestrogens) – are just one of the risk factors for development of breast tumors. Knowing how to reduce these levels using nutrition and/or supplementation is important.

There are a couple of ways of going about this. One is to block an enzyme known as aromatase, key for the production of estrogen in body tissues, including breast cells, thus reducing estrogen in the body. Women with estrogen driven tumors are often prescribed aromatase inhibiting drugs, and they have far more potent estrogen-squelching effects than simple nutrients do, but they often do too good a job. These drugs can induce severe menopausal symptoms and come with a long list of debilitating side effects. Not everyone experiences these side effects, but the majority of women do have at least some problems with them including joint pain, depression, vision disturbances and hot flashes. One of the most-searched pages on my website is one titled 18 Natural Aromatase Inhibitors so I know this is important to people.

There are many other ways that nutrients naturally lower estrogen levels in the body. Some reduce the abundance of estrogen receptors. Some block or alter estrogen signaling between cells. Some decrease estrogen receptor alpha, known to lead to proliferation of breast cells. Some bind to estrogen and carry it out of the body, thus neutralizing the effects of high levels of circulating estrogen. Some nutrients help the body to break down estrogen, while others inhibit the expression of estrogen-related genes. As you can see, there are many ways that nutrients can inhibit excess estrogen.

PART 7 – NUTRIENTS THAT INHIBIT EXCESS ESTROGEN PRODUCTION

So let’s get right to it. The nutrients that are capable of inhibiting excess estrogen production in the body include:

Apigenin – found in celery, chamomile tea, chickpeas, grapefruit, onions, oranges, parsley, rice bran, sorghum bran [1]

Beta-Sitosterol – acai, almonds, amaranth, barley, black rice, Brazil nuts, flaxseed, hemp seed, macadamia nuts, oats, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, rice bran, sesame seeds, soybeans, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [2]

Biochanin A – found in alfalfa sprouts, astragalus, cashews, chickpeas, kidney beans, pinto beans, red clover [3]

Caffeic acid – found in adzuki beans, apples, apicots, barley, bee propolis, buckwheat bran, brown rice, chia seeds, chickpeas, coffee, flaxseed, goji/wolfberry, hazelnuts, lentils, oats, quinoa, sorghum bran, soybeans, sunflower seeds, wheat [4]

Conjugated Linoleic Acid – from organic grass fed beef, butter from grass-fed cows raised organically, full fat (preferably raw, organic) dairy products like cream, milk, yogurt or cheese [5]

Ellagic acid – found in acai, amla, apples, black raspberries, blackberries, Brazil nuts, cranberries, pomegranates, pecans, raspberries, strawberries, walnuts [6]

Ellagitannins – found in amla, bilberries, blueberries, black raspberries, Eucalyptus citriodora, pomegranates, strawberries, raspberries, walnuts [7]

Enterolactone, Enterodiol – from flaxseed, oats [8]

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) – found in amla, green tea [9]

Fiber – found in beans, bran, nuts, seeds, whole grains, fruits and vegetables.  A high fiber diet helps remove excess estrogen from the body. [10]

Genistein – found in chickpeas, kidney beans, quinoa, soybeans [11], [12]

Grapeseed Extract – supplement (make sure it comes from organically grown grapes) [13]

Kaempferol – found in amla, Anasazi beans, barley, black beans, black rice, buckwheat bran, chickpeas, chia seeds, flaxseed, ginkgo biloba, green beans, lentils, quinoa, red beans, rice bran [14]

Lignans – found in acai, barley, Brazil nuts, buckwheat bran, cashews, chia seeds, chickpeas, flaxseed, hemp seed, macadamia nuts, oats, pumpkin seeds, red beans, sesame seeds, soybeans, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [15]

Luteolin – found in celery, lemongrass, lentils, oregano, parsley, peppermint, pomegranate, rice bran, rosemary, sorghum bran [16], [17]

Melatonin – found in bananas, barley, black rice, cherries (tart), ginger, oats, walnuts, and melatonin supplements [18], [19], [20]

Naringenin – found in almonds, all citrus fruit, black rice, rice bran, sorghum bran [21]

Oleuropein – found in olives, olive leaf extract, olive oil [22]

Phloridzin – found in apples [23]

Quercetin – found in adzuki beans, amla, Anasazi beans, apples with peels, apricots, asparagus, barley, black beans, black rice, black tea, blackberries, blueberries, broccoli, capers, cauliflower, celery, cherries, chickpeas, chia seeds, cocoa powder (unsweetened), cranberries, dill, eggplant, elderberries, gingko biloba, grapes (red), green beans, green pepper, green tea, honey, kale, lentils, lettuce (esp Romaine), onions, parsley, pears with peels, peppers, quinoa, raspberries, red onions, sage, shallots, spinach, tea (black and green), tomatoes, yellow snap beans [24], [25]

Resveratrol combined with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) – a 2010 study found that the pair minimized the action of estrogen on MCF-10F cells (healthy human breast cells, estrogen receptor-alpha negative). [26]

Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) – found in flaxseed, sunflower seeds [27]

Selenium – from amaranth, barley, Brazil nuts, brewer’s yeast, broccoli, brown rice, buckwheat bran, chickpeas, chicken, garlic, kelp, lentils, liver, macadamia nuts, molasses, oats, onions, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, red beans, salmon, seafood, spelt, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran, wheat germ [28]

Sesamol – found in sesame seeds and sesame oil [29]

Vitamin B6 – found in chicken and turkey, grass-fed beef, pistachios, tuna, pinto beans, avocado, molasses, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds – helps liver break down estrogen [30]

Vitamin D3 – found in raw milk, salmon, sunshine, tuna, D3 supplementation [31], [32]

Vitamin E – found in amaranth, barley, black rice, Brazil nuts, brown rice, buckwheat bran, cashews, chickpeas, green beans, hemp seed, lentils, macadamia nuts, oats, pecans, pistachios, quinoa, red beans, rice bran, sesame seeds, spelt, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [33]

Please note that this is not an exhaustive list, there are likely other nutrients that will have an inhibitory effect on estrogen. As I find the research, I will add it here. As much of the research is only preliminary, we often do not know the exact quantities of a nutrient required to exert estrogen lowering effects so my advice is to include as many of these nutrients in your daily/weekly diet as seems practicable!

IMPORTANT NOTE: Please do not attempt to heal cancer using only a few nutrients. Cancer is a complex disease and requires a multi-disciplinary approach to effectively beat it. It is best to work with an oncologist and/or integrative oncologist and/or oncology naturopath and/or functional medicine doctor for the best results.

For more information on other epigenetic factors that reduce breast cancer risk, please see
Part 1 nutrients that can control regulatory genes
Part 2 nutrients that can reduce damage to DNA
Part 3 nutrients that stop rapid proliferation of cells
Part 4 nutrients that ease cancer promoting inflammation
Part 5 nutrients that change malignant cells back into healthy cells
Part 6 nutrients that alter or restore receptors on breast cancer cells

References:
[1] Induction and inhibition of aromatase (CYP19) activity by natural and synthetic flavonoid compounds in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15319488
[2] Beta-Sitosterol, Beta-Sitosterol Glucoside, and a Mixture of Beta-Sitosterol and Beta-Sitosterol Glucoside Modulate the Growth of Estrogen- Responsive Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and in Ovariectomized Athymic Mice – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15113961
[3] Dual Effects of Phytoestrogens Result in U-Shaped Dose–Response Curves – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240943/pdf/ehp0110-000743.pdf
[4] Caffeine and Caffeic Acid Inhibit Growth and Modify Estrogen Receptor and Insulin-like Growth Factor I Receptor Levels in Human Breast Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25691730
[5] Conjugated linoleic acid blocks estrogen signaling in human breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14988466
[6] Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Enzymes of Estrogen Metabolism – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2896023/
[7] Pomegranate ellagitannin-derived compounds exhibit antiproliferative and antiaromatase activity in breast cancer cells in vitro – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20051378
[8] Estrogen-induced angiogenic factors derived from stromal and cancer cells are differently regulated by enterolactone and genistein in human breast cancer in vivo – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19924815
[9] The regulation of steroid receptors by epigallocatechin-3-gallate in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447698/
[10] Dietary fiber intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status—A prospective cohort study among Swedish women – https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ijc.23060?_ga=2.173184803.1695834406.1506587025-826077929.1505289352
[11] Phytoestrogens Induce Differential Estrogen Receptor Alpha- or Beta-Mediated
Responses in Transfected Breast Cancer Cells – http://bit.ly/2Hczhu6
[12] Modulation of estrogen receptor-ß isoforms by phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16596234
[13] Grape seed extract is an aromatase inhibitor and a suppressor of aromatase expression – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16740737
[14] Inhibitory Aromatase Effects of Flavonoids from Ginkgo Biloba Extracts on Estrogen Biosynthesis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26434836
[15] Inhibition of human aromatase by mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8382517
[16] Inhibitory effect of luteolin on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells by suppression of aromatase (CYP19) – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22838964
[17] Coadministrating luteolin minimizes the side effects of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25138022
[18] Selective estrogen enzyme modulator actions of melatonin in human breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18298468/
[19] Melatonin as a selective estrogen enzyme modulator – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19075592
[20] Estrogen-signaling pathway: a link between breast cancer and melatonin oncostatic actions – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16647824/
[21] Naringenin: a partial agonist on estrogen receptor in T47D-KBluc breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3832325/
[22] Combining computational and biochemical studies for a rationale on the anti-aromatase activity of natural polyphenols – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17910019
[23] Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of phloridzin – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20410591
[24] Inhibitory Aromatase Effects of Flavonoids from Ginkgo Biloba Extracts on Estrogen Biosynthesis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26434836
[25] Quercetin-induced apoptotic cascade in cancer cells: antioxidant versus estrogen receptor alpha-dependent mechanisms – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19194971
[26] Resveratrol and N-acetylcysteine block the cancer-initiating step in MCF-10F cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425208/
[27] Effects of flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside on preneoplastic biomarkers of cancer progression in a model of simultaneous breast and ovarian cancer development – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5025029
[28] Methylseleninic acid is a novel suppressor of aromatase expression – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22128327
[29] Estrogenic activities of sesame lignans and their metabolites on human breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141889
[30] The interactions between vitamin B6 and hormones – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/217175
[31] 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 downregulates aromatase expression and inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23253631
[32] The Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Vitamin D in the Treatment of Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3429709/
[33] Inhibitory Effects of Gamma- and Delta-Tocopherols on Estrogen-Stimulated Breast Cancer in Vitro and in Vivo – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5337152/

GET MY BEST TIPS on getting through breast cancer and preventing recurrences by signing up for my free e-newsletters and e-books on the right. You can also “like” me on Facebook (Marnie Clark, Breast Health Coach) to get my inspirational snippets, news and updates. I promise to do my utmost to keep you informed and empowered on your healing journey… and beyond.

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