The Best Antiviral Foods

Hey there – my Facebook Live session today covered the Best Antiviral Foods, and I promised to share the list with you on my website.

I apologize if I was a little low-key today, this happens to be the 22nd anniversary of my mother’s death – from breast cancer – and I miss her terribly, especially on this day.

Now about these antiviral foods. I am not claiming that these foods will protect you against coronavirus – we don’t know that. The virus is too new. But we have to eat anyway, right? So we might as well concentrate on the foods we know to have antiviral activity. They might just protect us, who knows? Here’s the list:

The Best Antiviral Foods

Amla – a potent antiviral and a super food available in powder form
Apples – full of phytochemicals that are antiviral
Apple Cider Vinegar – strongly antiviral
Apricots – also full of antiviral phytochemicals
Artichokes – potently antiviral
Arugula/rocket – helps to clean and detoxify the blood of heavy metals which feed viruses
Asparagus – anti-inflammatory and antiviral
Atlantic Sea Vegetables, including dulse, bladderwrack, kelp, alaria, sea lettuce, Irish moss, or rockweed – pull toxic metals out of the body (which feed viruses), lock onto the toxins and pull them out of the body, leaving behind healing minerals
Avocados – full of healthy fats that protect cells from viral activity
Bananas – eaten under-ripe, act as prebiotics, so help to feed beneficial gut bacteria, also contains lectins that have been shown to be anti-viral in research
Bilberries – potently antiviral
Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) – antiviral, immune booster
Black tea – research shows that black tea can almost completely inhibit the infectious nature of influenza virus
Blackberries – full of anthocyanins that suppress inflammation and DNA mutations
Blackcurrants – antiviral
Blueberries – especially wild, help to restore the nervous system and flush viral toxins out of the body
Broccoli and broccoli sprouts – boost immunity, are antiviral
Cauliflower – antibacterial, antiviral
Celery – inhibits viral activity
Citrus fruits – Lemons, limes, oranges, tangerines, grapefruit – all potently antiviral
Coconut oil – antiviral, anti-inflammatory
Cucumbers – flush viral toxins from blood
Elderberries – antiviral, strengthen the immune system
Fermented foods like sauerkraut, kim chi – best if homemade
Figs – many studies show they have antiviral activity
Flaxseed – boosts immunity, protects integrity of cells, antiviral
Garlic – antiviral, antibacterial, defends cells against viral activity
Ginger – potently antiviral
Grapes – have antiviral activity (always choose organic)
Hempseed, Hemp Oil – antiviral
Honey, raw – helps fight against viruses
Kale – high in alkaloids that protect cells against viral activity
Lettuce and leafy greens – help cleanse viruses from the liver
Lychee – antiviral
Mangoes – antiviral
Mangosteen – antiviral
Maple syrup – the pure organic variety is best for its antiviral properties
Medicinal mushrooms – Cordyceps are particularly good at suppressing viral replication, and shiitake mushrooms help to boost immunity and are antiviral. A synergistic blend of mushrooms works well on both things – suppressing viruses and boosting immunity
Nuts – full of antiviral phytochemicals
Onions, shallots, chives, leeks, and scallions – antiviral, protect cells
Papaya – antiviral
Pears – antiviral
Pomegranates – help detox and cleanse the blood and lymphatic system
Potatoes – contain bioactive form of lysine which helps to fight viruses and boost immunity
Pumpkin – full of antiviral vitamins and minerals
Radishes – full of sulfur, potently antiviral
Raspberries – remove viral debris from the organs and bloodstream
Seeds – pumpkin, sesame, hemp, flax – boost immunity and help to rid body of viruses
Spinach – antibacterial, antiviral
Sprouts, microgreens – full of zinc & selenium, strengthen immune system against viral activity
Squash – contains antiviral minerals and vitamins
Strawberries – packed full of DNA-protective antioxidants and antiviral phytochemicals
Sweet potatoes – help cleanse and detox the liver from viral toxins
Tomatoes – good for immune system, help body to eject viruses
Turmeric – crammed full of healing phytochemicals, potently antiviral
Watercress – cleanses the blood, full of vitamin C, antiviral

Interesting, right? I’m always promoting to my breast cancer coaching clients the fact that we need to be overdosing on nutrition to give ourselves the best fighting chance of beating the disease. The same thing is true right now. The better our nutrition, the better our bodies can withstand this thing that’s going around.

I’m continually in awe of how Mother Nature provides for us and protects us. We just need to trust in her more, take care of her better, and take care of ourselves better by eating well, especially during this time. Let’s hope our organic farmers and backyard gardeners can continue to grow what they do. This might be a good time to tear up that grassy spot in your garden and put it to good use!

GET MY BEST TIPS on healthy ways to beat breast cancer and prevent recurrences by signing up for my free e-newsletters. You can also “like” me on Facebook (Marnie Clark, Breast Health Coach) to get my inspirational snippets, news and updates. I promise to do my utmost to keep you informed and empowered on your healing journey… and beyond.

Protecting Bones From Breast Cancer Metastasis

Yesterday I posted on my Facebook business page (Marnie Clark, Breast Health Coach) a very interesting article about a study that had researchers investigating how it is possible that breast cancer cells from a primary tumor migrate to the bones. Researchers were looking into what was happening in the bones that allowed cancer cells to remain there dormant, only to reawaken decades later. They wanted to understand how breast cancer cells were able to flourish through metastasis to the bone – this has long been a goal of the breast cancer research community, according to one of the lead research team members, Dr Karen Bussard.

That very thing has long worried me as well, particularly because I had breast cancer 15 years ago – and in my role as a breast health coach I do run into people that this has happened to – they were cancer-free for 20 years, and then suddenly they incur a bone fracture and it is found that their breast cancer is in their bones and they are deemed to be at Stage 4. So this research really interested me, and in view of the amount of interest it engendered on my Facebook page, it’s obvious that many others want to know more as well. Here is a synopsis of the research, and under that I share a list of the nutrients that help to protect bones from metastasis by breast cancer cells.

The Research

The study [1] was done in 2018 at Thomas Jefferson University at the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center in Philadelphia, PA. I would invite you to take the time to read this study as it is fascinating. Researchers investigated how bone cells change once they interact with breast cancer cells. They found that osteoblasts (a bone cell that is responsible for the deposition of new bone matrix) from mice and humans change their function after interacting with breast cancer cells that had migrated to the bones. Osteoblasts apparently have multiple roles in the progression of cancer and appear to interact differently with cancer cells depending on the stage of the disease.

First, I’ll share with you the introduction to this research because it’s important for us to understand how bone cells work. “In a cancer-free environment in the adult, the skeleton continuously undergoes remodeling. Bone-resorbing osteoclasts excavate erosion cavities, and bone-depositing osteoblasts synthesize osteoid matrix that forms new bone, with no net bone gain or loss. When metastatic breast cancer cells invade the bone, this balance is disrupted. Patients with bone metastatic breast cancer frequently suffer from osteolytic bone lesions that elicit severe bone pain and fractures.”

Earlier studies showed that in advanced stage metastatic breast cancer (let’s call this ASMBC) patients where bones were invaded, osteoblasts stopped working – they didn’t produce the matrix that strengthens and stabilizes bone, which is what leads to the loss of bone density that is seen in these patients. Apparently in ASMBC, cancer cells are able to co-opt osteoblasts to help the cancer cells thrive.

The researchers in this study found that in earlier stages of breast cancer when cancer cells first enter bones, instead of producing new bone matrix, the osteoblasts can divert their energy toward producing factors to stop the growth of the invading cancer cells. These osteoblasts, now termed “tumor-educated osteoblasts”, release factors that change the behavior of the cancer cells – these factors check the wild growth of the cancer cells and restore the function of the P21 gene which stops the proliferation of metastatic breast cancer cells. Fascinating, right?

The research team also found that these tumor-educated osteoblasts were able to slow the growth of the cancer. However, the osteoblasts that did not meet up and interact with metastatic breast cancer cells did not have the ability to slow cancer cell growth.

Dr Bussard stated “The next step is to fully characterize the molecules that osteoblasts use to reign in cancer growth, and see whether it’s possible to turn that understanding toward treatments that can put cancer cells to sleep forever.” [2]

In the meantime, while we’re waiting for that research, there are things we can do as breast cancer survivors to promote good bone health.

Phytochemicals that Promote Strong Osteoblasts

Phytochemicals are plant-based chemicals – all natural – and these are the ones I have found (so far – there may well be more) that promote strong osteoblasts.

Cannibidiol – available by supplementation [26]

Cinnamic acid – found in adzuki beans, amaranth, apples, apricots, arugula (rocket), avocados, bell peppers, bitter melon, black beans, blackberries, bok choy, brown rice, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, cherries, celery, chickpeas, chilies and hot peppers, cranberries, dragon fruit, durian, figs, flaxseed, goji, graviola, kale, kiwi, kohlrabi, lemons, macadamia nuts, mandarins, mangosteen, maqui, nectarines, oranges, peaches, pears, peas, pineapple, pomegranates, quinoa, rice bran, rutabaga, sorghum bran, soybeans, spelt, strawberries, sunflower seeds, tomatoes, turnips, walnuts, wasabi, wheat bran [3]

Epicatechin gallate – found in apples, apricots, berries, cherries, chocolate, cocoa beans, grapes (black and red), onions, pears, tea (green and black) [4]

Genistein – found in chickpeas, dates, kidney beans, peanuts, peas, pomegranates, quinoa, soybeans [5]

Kaempferol – found in almonds, amla, Anasazi beans, apples, arugula (rocket), asparagus, barley, beets, bell peppers, black beans, black-eyed peas, black raspberries, black rice, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, bok choy, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, buckwheat bran, cantaloupe, cauliflower, celery, cherries, chickpeas, chia seeds, collard greens, cranberries, dates, dragon fruit, elderberries, flaxseed, ginkgo biloba, goji/wolfberry, grapefruit, grapes, graviola, green beans, guava, horseradish, kale, kidney beans, kiwi, kohlrabi, lemons, lentils, lima beans, limes, lychee, mangoes, maqui, mulberries, nectarines, noni, passionfruit, peaches, pears, peas, persimmons, pomegranates, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, radishes, raspberries, red beans, rice bran, rutabaga, sesame seeds, spelt, strawberries, sunflower seeds, tomatoes, turnips, watercress, watermelon [6]

Monotropein – found in bilberries, mulberries [7]

Naringenin, naringin – grapefruit, lemon, lime, pomegranate [8], [9]

Quercetin – found in adzuki beans, almonds, amla, Anasazi beans, apples with peels, apricots, arugula (rocket), asparagus, avocados, bananas, barley, beets, bell peppers, bilberries, black beans, black-eyed peas, black raspberries, black rice, black tea, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, bok choy, Brazil nuts, broccoli, brown rice, Brussel sprouts, cantaloupe, capers, cauliflower, celery, cherries, chickpeas, chia seeds, chilies and hot peppers, cocoa powder (unsweetened), collard greens, cranberries, daikon, dates, dill, dragon fruit, durian, eggplant, elderberries, figs, gingko biloba, goji, grapefruit, grapes, graviola, green beans, green pepper, green tea, guava, honey, honeydew melon, horseradish, kale, kiwi, kohlrabi, lemons, lentils, lettuce (esp Romaine), lima beans, limes, lychee, mangoes, maqui, mulberries, nectarines, noni, onions, parsley, passionfruit, peaches, pears with peels, peas, peppers, persimmons, pigeon pea leaves & seeds, pineapple, plums, pomegranates, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, radishes, raspberries, red onions, rutabaga, sage, sesame seeds, shallots, spelt, spinach, strawberries, sunflower seeds, tea (black and green), tomatoes, turnips, watercress, yellow snap beans [10]

Taxifolin – found in avocados, Brazil nuts, lemons, limes, spelt [11]

Vitamin D3 – found in raw milk, salmon, sunshine, tuna, and via supplementation [12]

Phytochemicals that Inhibit Bone Cancer Metastases

These are the phytochemicals that studies have shown inhibit bone cancer metastases. There will be significantly more than these, and as I locate them, I will add them here.

Betulinic acid – found in chaga mushrooms, persimmons, pomegranates [13]

Esculin – found in guava, plums [28]

Isothiocyanates – found in cruciferous vegetables, ie arugula (rocket), bok choy, broccoli, broccoli sprous, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, daikon, horseradish, kale, kohlrabi, papaya, radishes, rutabaga, turnips, wasabi, watercress [14]

Vitamin K2 – found in apples, arugula (rocket), asparagus, avocados, bananas, barley, bell peppers, black-eyed peas, black raspberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, bok choy, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, cannellini beans, cantaloupe, carrots, cashews, cauliflower, celery, cherries, chilies and hot peppers, collard greens, cranberries, cucumbers, dandelion greens, figs, grapes, green beans, guava, honeydew melon, horseradish, kale, kelp, kidney beans, kiwi, kohlrabi, lima beans, mangoes, mulberries, mustard greens, nectarines, papayas, peaches, pears, peas, persimmons, pine nuts, pineapple, plums, pomegranates, radishes, raspberries, rutabaga, spelt, spinach, spring onions, strawberries, Swiss chard, tomatoes, turnips & turnip greens, watercress, watermelon, and available by supplementation [15]

Phytochemicals that Promote P21 Gene Activity

Since it looks as though the P21 gene is also involved in bone health and a therapeutic target, promoting the activity of that gene would certainly make sense. Here are the phytochemicals that do this:

Coumestrol – found in dates, peas, pomegranates, soybeans [27]

Damnacanthal and nordamnacanthal – found in noni fruit and juice [16]

Diosmin – found in mandarins and oranges [17]

Genistein – see entry above for list of foods [18]

Indole-3-carbinol – found in cruciferous veggies ie arugula (rocket), bok choy, broccoli, broccoli sprouts, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, daikon, horseradish, kale, kohlrabi, radishes, rutabaga, turnips, watercress [19]

Momilactone B – found in brown rice [20]

Nobiletin – found in grapefruit, lemons, limes, mandarins, oranges, tangerines [21]

Don’t Forget the Selenium

Selenium – found in amaranth, asparagus, barley, black-eyed peas, blackberries, Brazil nuts, brewer’s yeast, broccoli, brown rice, buckwheat bran, chickpeas, chicken, dates, einkorn, garlic, goji/wolfberry, grapefruit, guava, honeydew melon, kelp, lentils, lima beans, liver, macadamia nuts, mangoes, molasses, mulberries, noni, oats, onions, peanuts, pears, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, radishes, red beans, salmon, seafood, sesame seeds, spelt, spinach, strawberries, sunflower seeds, turnips, walnuts, watermelon, wheat bran, wheat germ. Selenium may also be helpful for those with breast cancer that has metastasized to the bones. A 2009 study [22] found that selenium played a role in suppressing the complicated inflammatory response in this type of cancer. Selenium has many other roles to play in breast cancer prevention, it is one of my most-often prescribed supplements to my clients.
The main role of selenium is to inhibit the oxidation of fats as one of the components in the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, one of the most powerful antioxidants in the body. Selenium alters many different genes to make the body less susceptible to cancer and most people are deficient in this important mineral. Selenium also protects the immune system, especially when combined with vitamin E. Most importantly, selenium protects breast cells from oxidative DNA damage, and inhibits the initiation phase of carcinogenesis by stimulating DNA repair, regulating apoptosis and preventing angiogenesis. Selenium also stimulates the production of T cells in the immune system. [23] Another good thing that selenium does for us – in the form of methyl-seleninic acid, is that it is a natural aromatase inhibitor. [24] You can see why I recommend it so frequently!

The Importance of Exercise

Remember that exercise is also crucially important for healthy bones. Muscles move bones and in response to that pulling and tugging, osteoblasts and osteoclasts kick into gear and the process of bone building and resorption begins. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are 20% higher in athletes than in the general population. You don’t have to be an athlete though – just get out there and move. Whether you choose weight-lifting, dancing, gardening, running, tai chi, hiking, walking, yoga (my personal favorite), Pilates, bicycling – whatever it is you like to do, get out there and move on a daily basis. It’s one of the best things you can do for your bones.

So between drenching your body in all of the foods that contain those protective phytochemicals and undertaking daily exercise, you give yourself a much better chance of avoiding metastatic breast cancer.

References:

[1] Osteoblasts are “educated” by crosstalk with metastatic breast cancer cells in the bone tumor microenvironment – https://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13058-019-1117-0

[2] Bone cells suppress cancer metastases – https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/05/190513104507.htm

[3] The botanical molecule p-hydroxycinnamic acid as a new osteogenic agent: insight into the treatment of cancer bone metastases – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573001

4-Epicatechin gallate (ECG) stimulates osteoblast differentiation via Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ)-mediated transcriptional activation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3975037/

[5] Genistein stimulates the osteoblastic differentiation via NO/cGMP in bone marrow culture – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15526288

[6] Stimulatory effect of naturally occurring flavonols quercetin and kaempferol on alkaline phosphatase activity in MG-63 human osteoblasts through ERK and estrogen receptor pathway – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295203009006

[7] Monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis increases osteoblastic bone formation and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26996879

[8] Naringin-induced bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression via PI3K, Akt, c-Fos/c-Jun and AP-1 pathway in osteoblasts – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299908004585

[9] Naringin promotes osteoblast differentiation and effectively reverses ovariectomy-associated osteoporosis – https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00776-013-0362-9

[10] Stimulatory effect of naturally occurring flavonols quercetin and kaempferol on alkaline phosphatase activity in MG-63 human osteoblasts through ERK and estrogen receptor pathway – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295203009006

[11] Taxifolin enhances osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells partially via NF-kB pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28579433

[12] 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 promotes the osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24597546

[13] Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463094

[14] Benzyl isothiocyanate prevents breast cancer-induced bone erosion in vivo – http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/77/13_Supplement/5258

[15] Effect of vitamin K in bone metabolism and vascular calcification: A review of mechanisms of action and evidences – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27437760

[16] Damnacanthal is a potent inducer of apoptosis with anticancer activity by stimulating p53 and p21 genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3997671/

[17] Diosmin-induced senescence, apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells of different p53 status and ERK activity – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27890807

[18] AKT and p21 WAF1/CIP1 as potential genistein targets in BRCA1-mutant human breast cancer cell lines – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20651350

[19] The indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet inhibits cell proliferation via overexpression of p21/CDKN1A in both estrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. — https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435243

[20] Momilactone B induces apoptosis and G1 arrest of the cell cycle in human monocytic leukemia U937 cells through downregulation of pRB phosphorylation and induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503697

[21] Antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity of nobiletin against three subtypes of human breast cancer cell lines – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24692711

[22] Selenium modifies the osteoblast inflammatory stress response to bone metastatic breast cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2791325/

[23] Selenium and anticarcinogenesis: underlying mechanisms – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18827575/

[24] Methylseleninic acid is a novel suppressor of aromatase expression – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22128327

[25] Diet and Exercise: a Match Made in Bone – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705732/

[26] Cannibinoids and bone regeneration —
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30702341

[27] Cytotoxic activity of soy phytoestrogen coumestrol against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells: Insights into the molecular mechanism – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27913286

[28] Aesculin modulates bone metabolism by suppressing receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and transduction signals – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28465233

GET MY BEST TIPS on healthy ways to beat breast cancer and prevent recurrences by signing up for my free e-newsletters and e-books on the right. You can also “like” me on Facebook (Marnie Clark, Breast Health Coach) to get my inspirational snippets, news and updates. I promise to do my utmost to keep you informed and empowered on your healing journey… and beyond.

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 10

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 10

This is part 10 of an 11-part series of articles, covering the epigenetic factors that reduce the growth of breast cancer cells and breast cancer risk. My intention with these articles is to empower you with information to help you heal from breast cancer, reduce your risk of recurrence, and/or to reduce your risk of getting breast cancer.

For more information on my personal reasons for putting this information together, see Part 1 of the series.

In this article,  I am sharing the nutrients that block angiogenesis (angio = related to blood vessels, and genesis = the creation of something new). Once a tumor begins developing and is in its rapid growth stage, it needs a fresh blood supply to feed itself and to migrate into other tissues (metastasize). The cells of a developing tumor have the ability to induce the growth of new blood vessels, termed angiogenesis, and they do this by multiple epigenetic mechanisms. So knowing what nutrients are capable of reversing the angiogenesis process is tremendously important because then you can deprive growing tumors of that new blood supply.

PART 10 – NUTRIENTS THAT BLOCK ANGIOGENESIS

Anthocyanins – found in acai, Anasazi beans, apples, bananas, black beans, bilberries, black raspberries, black rice, blackcurrants, blueberries, chickpeas, cranberries, elderberries, grapes, guava, kidney beans, mangoes, mangosteen, maqui, pomegranates, purple beans, purple carrots, purple sweet potatoes, sorghum bran, strawberries, walnuts [1]

Apigenin – found in celery, chamomile tea, chickpeas, dates, elderberries, grapefruit, guava, lemons, limes, onions, oranges, parsley, peas, rice bran, sorghum bran [2]

Beta-sitosterol – found in acai, almonds, amaranth, bananas, barley, black rice, blackberries, Brazil nuts, dates, dragon fruit, durian, flaxseed, goji, hemp seed, kiwi, macadamia nuts, oats, peas, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa (more on quinoa here), raspberries, rice bran, sesame seeds, soybeans, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [3]

Betulinic acid – found in chaga mushrooms, pomegranate, white birch bark [4]

Chebulagic acid – found in amla, myrobalan (Terminalia chebula) [5]

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a supplement [6]

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – found in organic grass fed beef, butter from grass-fed cows raised organically, full fat (preferably raw, organic) dairy products like cream, milk, yogurt or cheese [7]

Curcumin – found in turmeric; also available in supplements [8]

Durianol – found in durian [9]

Enterolactone – found in flaxseed, oats [10]

Esculin – found in guava [11]

Fisetin – found in apples, cucumbers, grapes, kiwi, onions, persimmon, strawberries [12]

Formononetin – found in astragalus, cashews, dates, red clover [13]

Genistein – found in chickpeas, dates, kidney beans, peas, quinoa, soybeans [14], [10]

Grape seed extract – a supplement [15]

Green tea [16], [17]

Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) – found in cruciferous vegies such as cabbage, radishes, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and daikon; also available in supplement form [18]

Jasmonic acid – found in apples, chickpeas, jasmine essential oil [19]

Juglone – from walnuts [20]

Luteolin – found in cantaloupe, celery, dates, elderberries, graviola, lemongrass, lemons, lentils, limes, maqui, oregano, parsley, peas, peppermint, pomegranate, rice bran, rosemary, sorghum bran [21]

Lycopene – found in apricots, bitter melon, dragon fruit, goji, grapefruit, guava, mangoes, pistachio nuts, tomatoes, red beans [22], [23]

Melatonin – found in bananas, barley, black rice, cherries (esp sour), ginger, grapes, oats, walnuts, also available as a supplement [24]

Nobiletin – found in grapefruit, lemons, limes, mandarins, oranges, tangerines [25]

Omega-3 fatty acids – found in many fish, but best plant source is from flaxseed oil or hempseed oil; also available as supplements [26]

Orientin and isoorientin – found in acai, graviola [27]

Piceatannol – found in blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, grapes [28]

Pomegranate [29], [30]

Quercetin – found in adzuki beans, amla, Anasazi beans, apples with peels, apricots, asparagus, bananas, barley, bilberries, black beans, black raspberries, black rice, black tea, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, broccoli, cantaloupe, capers, cauliflower, celery, cherries, chickpeas, chia seeds, cocoa powder (unsweetened), cranberries, dates, dill, dragon fruit, durian, eggplant, elderberries, figs, gingko biloba, goji, grapefruit, grapes, graviola, green beans, green pepper, green tea, guava, honey, kale, kiwi, lemons, lentils, lettuce (esp Romaine), limes, lychee, mangoes, maqui, mulberries, onions, parsley, peas, pears with peels, peppers, quinoa, raspberries, red onions, sage, shallots, spinach, strawberries, tea (black and green), tomatoes, yellow snap beans [31]

Selenium – found in amaranth, barley, Brazil nuts, brewer’s yeast, broccoli, brown rice, buckwheat bran, chickpeas, chicken, dates, garlic, goji, guava, kelp, lentils, liver, macadamia nuts, mangoes, molasses, oats, onions, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, red beans, salmon, seafood, spelt, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran, wheat germ [32]

Silibinin – found in St Mary’s Thistle a/k/a milk thistle [33]

Sulforaphane – found in cruciferous vegetables, broccoli sprouts [34], [35]

Syringic acid – found in acai, barley, bitter melon, dates, figs, flaxseed, kiwi, molasses, mulberries, rice bran, sorghum bran, swiss chard, walnuts, wheat [36], [37]

Tricin – found in rice bran, brown rice [38]

Vitamin D3 – found in raw milk, salmon, sunshine, tuna; also available in supplement form [39], [40]
2′-hydroxyflavonone – found in grapefruit, lemons, limes, mandarins, oranges, tangerines [41]

This is not an exhaustive list of nutrients, there are likely others that block the angiogenesis process in breast cancer cells. As I find the research and nutrients, I will add them here. With reference to therapeutic dosages, because much of the research is preliminary and has not been involved in a clinical trial, it is not known what exact amount is required for many of these nutrients to block angiogenesis. But because everything listed is nutritional with no known side effects, (unless you are allergic), my advice would be to include as many of these nutrients in your daily/weekly diet as possible.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Please do not attempt to treat breast cancer using only a few nutrients or supplements. Cancer is a complex disease and requires a multi-disciplinary approach to be effective. Please work with an oncologist and/or integrative oncologist and/or oncology naturopath and/or functional medicine doctor for the absolute best results.

For more information on other epigenetic factors that reduce breast cancer risk, please see
Part 1 nutrients that can control regulatory genes
Part 2 nutrients that can reduce damage to DNA
Part 3 nutrients that stop rapid proliferation of cells
Part 4 nutrients that ease cancer promoting inflammation
Part 5 nutrients that change malignant cells back into healthy cells
Part 6 nutrients that alter or restore receptors on breast cancer cells
Part 7 nutrients that inhibit excess estrogen production
Part 8 nutrients that trigger apoptosis in breast cancer cells
Part 9 nutrients that block abnormal growth factors

References:

[1] Anthocyanins and their role in cancer prevention – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2582525/
[2] Apigenin blocks induction of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA and protein in progestin-treated human breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20551847
[3] Beta-Sitosterol: A Promising but Orphan Nutraceutical to Fight Against Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26473555
[4] Multiple molecular targets in breast cancer therapy by betulinic acid – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27810789
[5] Anti-angiogenic effect of chebulagic acid involves inhibition of the VEGFR2- and GSK-3ß-dependent signaling pathways – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28467858
[6] Coenzyme Q10 decreases basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced angiogenesis by blocking ERK activation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22715588
[7] Prevention of mammary cancer with conjugated linoleic acid: role of the stroma and the epithelium – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14587866
[8] The impact of curcumin on breast cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22772921
[9] Plant phenolics in the prevention and treatment of cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21520702
[10] Estrogen-induced angiogenic factors derived from stromal and cancer cells are differently regulated by enterolactone and genistein in human breast cancer in vivo – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19924815
[11] Esculin and its oligomer fractions inhibit adhesion and migration of U87 glioblastoma cells and in vitro angiogenesis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26459313
[12] The flavonoid fisetin as an anticancer agent targeting the growth signaling pathways – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299916304319?via%3Dihub
[13] Formononetin, a novel FGFR2 inhibitor, potently inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in preclinical models – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4792576/
[14] Genistein exerts multiple suppressive effects on human breast carcinoma cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9809990
[15] Grape seed extract (GSE) inhibits angiogenesis via suppressing VEGFR signaling pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802543/
[16] Inhibition of mammary tumorigenesis in the C3(1)/SV40 mouse model by green tea – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17484049
[17] Green tea catechins inhibit angiogenesis through suppression of STAT3 activation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3664280/
[18] Molecular targets and anticancer potential of indole-3-carbinol and its derivatives – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16082211
[19] Methyl jasmonate abolishes the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3576238/
[20] Effect of Pin1 inhibitor juglone on proliferation, migration and angiogenic ability of breast cancer cell line MCF7Adr – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26223922
[21] Inhibitory effect of luteolin on the angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane and invasion of breast cancer cells via downregulation of AEG-1 and MMP-2 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24129732
[22] Chemopreventive effect of lycopene alone or with melatonin against the genesis of oxidative stress and mammary tumors induced by 7,12 dimethyl(a)benzanthracene in sprague dawely female rats – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18682897
[23] Lycopene inhibits angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting MMP-2/uPA system through VEGFR2-mediated PI3K-Akt and ERK/p38 signaling pathways – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22707264
[24] Melatonin regulates the tumor suppressor miR-148a-3p involved in angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer – http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/77/13_Supplement/1477
[25] Nobiletin Inhibits Angiogenesis by Regulating Src/FAK/STAT3-Mediated Signaling through PXN in ER+ Breast Cancer Cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5454848/
[26] Regulation of tumor angiogenesis by dietary fatty acids and eicosanoids – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11142082
[27] Isoorientin induces apoptosis, decreases invasiveness, and downregulates VEGF secretion by activating AMPK signaling in pancreatic cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5161403/
[28] Inhibition of tumor progression by oral piceatannol in mouse 4T1 mammary cancer is associated with decreased angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26297476
[29] Preliminary studies on the anti-angiogenic potential of pomegranate fractions in vitro and in vivo – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14739618
[30] Punicalagin, a polyphenol from pomegranate fruit, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human PC-3 and LNCaP cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28709945
[31] Quercetin Suppresses Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Angiogenesis through Inactivation of P300 Signaling – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152552/
[32] Selenium and anticarcinogenesis: underlying mechanisms – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18827575/
[33] Silibinin prevents TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and VEGF secretion by inactivation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells –
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19181503
[34] Sulforaphane–a possible agent in prevention and therapy of cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21160094/
[35] Epigenetic diet: impact on the epigenome and cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197720/
[36] Syringic acid from Tamarix aucheriana possesses antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing activities in human colorectal cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23745612
[37] Mechanistic Study of the In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibitory Effects of Protocatechuic Acid and Syringic Acid on VEGF-Induced Angiogenesis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29886729
[38] Tricin, 4′,5,7-trihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyflavone, exhibits potent antiangiogenic activity in vitro – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498749
[39] The Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Vitamin D in the Treatment of Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3429709/
[40] Vitamin D3 decreases glycolysis and invasiveness, and increases cellular stiffness in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29216499
[41] 2′-Hydroxyflavanone: A novel strategy for targeting breast cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5650397/

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Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 4

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 4

My goal in this series of articles is to empower you with information about epigenetic factors that can be utilized to not only reduce your risk of breast cancer, but also to help you heal from breast cancer should you be diagnosed with it.

For more information on my personal reasons for putting this information together, see Part 1 of the series, Epigenetic Factors To Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Part 1.

This article, Part 4 of the series, will cover the phytonutrients that ease or prevent cancer-promoting inflammation. Chronic inflammation in the body is a known risk factor for various cancers, including breast cancer. Eliminating inflammation is a valid strategy for both preventing cancer and for helping to treat it. Science recognizes this and, indeed, many anti-inflammatory cancer drugs are also used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. [1]

Once a cell becomes malignant, inflammation is a powerful promoter of cancer. Fortunately for us, nature provides us with hundreds of natural anti-inflammatory phytochemicals that work at the gene level to counter inflammation. Here are some of the best ones.

PART 4 – NUTRIENTS THAT EASE OR PREVENT CANCER-PROMOTING INFLAMMATION

Alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin – found in certain plants including Launaea procumbens, hemp seeds, sunflower seeds [2]

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega 3 fat found in buckwheat bran, chia, chickpeas, flaxseed, green beans, hemp seeds, macadamia nuts, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, red beans, soybeans, walnuts [3]

Anthocyanins, plant pigments, found in acai, Anasazi beans, apples, black beans, bilberries, black raspberries, black rice, blackcurrants, blueberries, chickpeas, elderberries, grapes, pomegranates, purple beans, purple carrots, purple sweet potatoes, sorghum bran, strawberries, walnuts [4], [5]

Apigenin, a flavonoid found in celery, chamomile tea, chickpeas,  clove, grapefruit, onions, oranges, parsley, peppermint, rice bran, sorghum bran [6], [7]

Berberine, an alkaloid found in goldenseal, barberry, Oregon grape, Huang bai, tree turmeric [8], [9]

Beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol found in almonds, amaranth, barley, black rice, Brazil nuts, flaxseed, hemp seed, macadamia nuts, oats, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, rice bran, sesame seeds, soybeans, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [10], [11]

Betaine, an amino acid created in the body from choline and glycine. Found in amaranth, barley, beef, beets, oats, quinoa, spinach, sunflower seeds, sweet potato, wheat, wheat bran [12], [13]

Bio-chanin A, an isoflavone found in alfalfa sprouts, astragalus, cashews, chickpeas, kidney beans, pinto beans, red clover [14], [15]

Caffeic acid, a polyphenol found in adzuki beans, apples, apicots, barley, bee propolis, buckwheat bran, brown rice, chia seeds, chickpeas, coffee, flaxseed, goji/wolfberry, hazelnuts, lentils, oats, quinoa, sorghum bran, soybeans, sunflower seeds, wheat [16], [17]

Capsaicin, a phytochemical in hot chili peppers, cayenne [18], [19]

Catechins and epicatechins, polyphenols found in adzuki beans, almonds, amaranth, apricots, bilberries, buckwheat bran, chickpeas, green beans, green tea, lentils, pecans, sorghum bran, wheat bran [17], [20]

Chlorophyll, a plant pigment found in all green plants and herbs, blue-green algae, grapes, green beans, matcha tea, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, seaweed, spirulina, sprouts, wheatgrass [21]

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), from (preferably) organic grass fed beef, butter from grass-fed cows raised organically, full fat (preferably raw) dairy products like cream, milk, yogurt or cheese [22], [23], [24]

Curcumin, the active phytochemical polyphenol in turmeric [25], [26], [27]

Cyanidin-3-glucoside – found in acai, amaranth, bilberries, black raspberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, cherries, black rice, durian, elderberries, lychee, maqui, mulberries, pistachio nuts, red beans, strawberries [72]

Ellagic acid, a polyphenol found in apples, black raspberries, blackberries, Brazil nuts, cranberries, pomegranates, pecans, raspberries, strawberries, walnuts [28]

Essential oils – many essential oils have potent anti-inflammatory activity, including:
Basil [29]
Black Pepper [30]
Cedarwood [31]
Cinnamon [32]
Citrus essential oils [33]
Clove [34]
Copaiba [35]
Frankincense [36]
Ginger [37]
Lavender [38]
Myrrh [36]
Rosemary [39]
Ylang ylang [40]

Fenugreek – herb [73]

Fiber, found in beans, bran, whole grains, nuts and seeds, is associated with decreasing systemic inflammation [41], [42]

Gamma linolenic acid (GLA), an omega-6 fatty acid found in barley, blackcurrant seed oil, borage seed oil, evening primrose oil, hemp seeds, oats, spirulina [43], [37]

Genistein, an isoflavone found in chickpeas, kidney beans, quinoa, soybeans [44], [45]

Ginger, as the root, powder and essential oil form [37]

Glucosinolates, sulforaphane and isothiocyanates – phytochemicals found in Brassica vegetables including arugula (rocket), bok choy, broccoli, broccoflower, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, daikon, horseradish, kale, kohlrabi, mizuna, mustard greens, mustard seeds, radishes, rutabaga, tatsoi, turnips, wasabi, watercress [46], [47]

Kaempferol, a flavonoid found in Anasazi beans, barley, black beans, black rice, buckwheat bran, chickpeas, chia seeds, flaxseed, green beans, lentils, quinoa, red beans, rice bran [48], [49]

Luteolin, a flavonoid found in celery, lemongrass, lentils, oregano, parsley, peppermint, rice bran, rosemary, sorghum bran [50], [51]

Naringenin, a flavonoid found in almonds, all citrus fruit, black rice, rice bran, sorghum bran [52], [53]

Omega-3 fatty acids, found in chia seeds, Brussels sprouts, flax seeds, hemp seeds, kiwi fruit, lingonberries, perilla seed oil, walnuts [54], [55]

Probiotics – beneficial bacteria available from a wide variety of sources including supplementation  [74], [75]

Protocatechuic acid, a polyphenol found in acai, adzuki beans, apples, avocados, bilberries, blackberries, blueberries, brown rice, buckwheat, cauliflower, dates, eggplant, garlic, hazelnuts, kiwi, lentils, mango, mangosteen, mulberries, olive oil, olives, pears, pistachio nuts, raspberries, red onion, sorghum bran, strawberries, wheat [56]. [57]

Quercetin, a polyphenol found in adzuki beans, Anasazi beans, apples, apricots, asparagus, barley, berries, black beans, black rice, broccoli, capers, cauliflower, celery, chickpeas, chia seeds, eggplant, gingko biloba, grapes, green beans, green pepper, honey, kale, lentils, lettuce, onions, quinoa, red onions, shallots, tea (black and green), tomatoes [58], [59]

Red Yeast Rice – the product of yeast (Monascus purpureus) grown on white rice, available in supplement form [76]

Resveratrol, part of a group of polyphenol compounds found in blueberries, cranberries, dark chocolate, peanuts, peanut butter, pistachio nuts, grapes, black beans, lentils, red wine, white wine [60], [61]

Saponins, triterpenoid phytochemicals found in amaranth, Anasazi beans, asparagus, barley, black beans, chickpeas, green beans, green soybeans, jiaogulan, oats, panax ginseng, quinoa, red beans, spinach, sunflower seeds, tomatoes, wheat [62], [63]

Selenium, a mineral found in amaranth, barley, Brazil nuts, brewer’s yeast, broccoli, brown rice, buckwheat bran, chickpeas, chicken, garlic, kelp, lentils, liver, macadamia nuts, molasses, oats, onions, pecans, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, red beans, salmon, seafood, spelt, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran, wheat germ [64], [65]

Vitamin C – from most fruits and vegetables [77], [78], [79]

Vitamin D3 – known as the sunshine vitamin because when sunlight hits your skin, a chemical reaction takes place which stimulates the production of vitamin D3 in the body. Also found in cod liver oil, raw milk, salmon, tuna [66], [67]

Vitamin E – Naturally occurring vitamin E exists in eight separate and unique forms called tocopherols and tocotrienols, and each form has a different potency or level of activity in the body. Found in amaranth, barley, black rice, Brazil nuts, brown rice, buckwheat bran, cashews, chickpeas, green beans, hemp seed, lentils, macadamia nuts, oats, pecans, pistachios, quinoa, red beans, rice bran, sesame seeds, spelt, walnuts, wheat, wheat bran [68], [69]

Zinc, a mineral found in adzuki beans, amaranth, barley, beets, Brazil nuts, black beans, cashews, chia seeds, flaxseed, hemp seeds, kidney/cannellini beans, lentils, macadamia nuts, oats, pistachio nuts, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, red beans, sesame seeds, soybeans, spelt, wheat, wheat bran [70], [71]

Please note that this is not an exhaustive list, there are hundreds of other anti-inflammatory foods and supplements, but these are some of the best known with the most research.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Please do not attempt to heal cancer using only a few nutrients. Cancer is a complex process and requires a multi-disciplinary approach. It’s always best to work with an oncologist and/or integrative oncologist and/or oncology naturopath and/or functional medicine doctor to achieve the best results.

For more information on other epigenetic factors that reduce breast cancer risk, please see
Part 1 nutrients that can control regulatory genes
Part 2 nutrients that can reduce damage to DNA
Part 3 nutrients that stop rapid proliferation of cells
and stay tuned for upcoming articles in this 11-part series.

References:

[1] Anti-Inflammatory Agents for Cancer Therapy – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2843097/

[2] Phytochemicals and Cytotoxicity of Launaea procumbens on Human Cancer Cell Lines – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5068119/

[3] Anti-inflammatory potential of alpha-linolenic acid mediated through selective COX inhibition: computational and experimental data – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24639012

[4] Bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins from purple root vegetables using mono- and co-culture cell models – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28691370

[5] Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4609785/

[6] Apigenin inhibits TNFa/IL-1a-induced CCL2 release through IKBK-epsilon signaling in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5404872/

[7] Apigenin: A dietary flavonoid with diverse anticancer properties – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29097249

[8] Synthesis and Identification of Novel Berberine Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors against TNF-a-Induced NF-kB Activation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28749438

[9] Berberis vulgaris and its constituent berberine as antidotes and protective agents against natural or chemical toxicities – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5478782/

[10] Beta-Sitosterol: A Promising but Orphan Nutraceutical to Fight Against Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26473555

[11] Beta-Sitosterol, Beta-Sitosterol Glucoside, and a Mixture of Beta-Sitosterol and Beta-Sitosterol Glucoside Modulate the Growth of Estrogen- Responsive Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and in Ovariectomized Athymic Mice – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15113961

[12] Anti-inflammatory effects of betaine on AOM/DSS-induced colon tumorigenesis in ICR male mice – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24969167

[13] Betaine reduces the expression of inflammatory adipokines caused by hypoxia in human adipocytes – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22424556

[14] Main Isoflavones Found in Dietary Sources as Natural Anti-inflammatory Agents – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29141545

[15] Biochanin A attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses and inhibits the activation of the MAPK pathway in BV2 microglial cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25483920

[16] Anti-inflammatory activity of caffeic acid derivatives isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29124660

[17] Dietary Intervention by Phytochemicals and Their Role in Modulating Coding and Non-Coding Genes in Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5486001/

[18] Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review – http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691502000376

[19] Capsaicin exhibits anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting IkB-a degradation in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages – http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898656802000864

[20] Anti-inflammatory actions of green tea catechins and ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2517497/

[21] Chlorophyll revisited: anti-inflammatory activities of chlorophyll a and inhibition of expression of TNF-a gene by the same – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22038065

[22] Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18029471

[23] Downregulation of inflammatory markers by conjugated linoleic acid isomers in human cultured astrocytes – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28847225

[24] Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling in canine mammary cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16619484

[25] Curcumin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 transcription in bile acid- and phorbol ester-treated human gastrointestinal epithelial cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10190560

[26] Curcumin potentiates the potent antitumor activity of ACNU against glioblastoma by suppressing the PI3K/AKT and NF-kB/COX-2 signaling pathways – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29180881

[27] Epigenetic diet: impact on the epigenome and cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197720/

[28] Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of ellagic acid – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20656257

[29] Anti-inflammatory and antiedematogenic activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil and its main compound estragole: In vivo mouse models – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27474066

[30] Alkaloids from Piper nigrum Exhibit Antiinflammatory Activity via Activating the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28185326

[31] Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. wood oil – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10350366

[32] Antiinflammatory Activity of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Bark Essential Oil in a Human Skin Disease Model – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5518441/

[33] Oral administration of d-limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23665426

[34] Anti-inflammatory activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28407719

[35] Anti-inflammatory activity of oleoresin from Brazilian Copaifera – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3352280

[36] A Review of Anti-inflammatory Terpenoids from the Incense Gum Resins Frankincense and Myrrh – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28381769

[37] Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877453/

[38] Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Essential Oil Exerts Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Macrophage Mediated Immune Response to Staphylococcus aureus – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26730790

[39] Biological activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) extract as analyzed in microorganisms and cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5685262/

[40] Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam in experimental animals – http://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/926

[41] High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease – http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0085253815552903

[42] Effects of dietary fiber intake on inflammation in chronic diseases – http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-45082010000200254

[43] Gamma linolenic acid, an antiinflammatory omega-6 fatty acid – https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rakesh_Kapoor4/publication/6630684_Gamma_Linolenic_Acid_An_Antiinflammatory_Omega-6_Fatty_Acid/links/56df449308aec4b3333b6ecc.pdf

[44] Complementary actions of docosahexaenoic acid and genistein on COX-2, PGE2 and invasiveness in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17052999

[45] Antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extracts from Glycine species and its bioactive compounds – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28597448

[46] Brassica-Derived Plant Bioactives as Modulators of Chemopreventive and Inflammatory Signaling Pathways – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5618539/

[47] Sulforaphane protects against acrolein-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses: modulation of Nrf-2 and COX-2 expression – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4947616/

[48] STAT3 and NF-kB are common targets for kaempferol-mediated attenuation of COX-2 expression in IL-6-induced macrophages and carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613220/

[49] Kaempferol Alleviates the Interleukin-1ß-Induced Inflammation in Rat Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes via Suppression of NF-kB – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566200/

[50] Luteolin triggers global changes in the microglial transcriptome leading to a unique anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective phenotype – https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-2094-7-3

[51] Luteolin and chrysin differentially inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 expression and scavenge reactive oxygen species but similarly inhibit prostaglandin-E2 formation in RAW 264.7 cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16702314

[52] Naringenin: an analgesic and anti-inflammatory citrus flavanone – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5354790/

[53] Effect of Citrus Flavonoids, Naringin and Naringenin, on Metabolic Syndrome and Their Mechanisms of Action – http://advances.nutrition.org/content/5/4/404.full

[54] Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575932/

[55] Health effects of omega-3,6,9 fatty acids: Perilla frutescens is a good example of plant oils – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3167467/

[56] Comparison of the Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Anthocyanin Metabolites, Protocatechuic Acid and 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid – https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/6297080/

[57] Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of protocatechuic acid in rats and mice – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21748471

[58] Quercetin attenuates collagen-induced arthritis by restoration of Th17/Treg balance and activation of Heme Oxygenase 1-mediated anti-inflammatory effect -https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29149703

[59] Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4808895/

[60] Resveratrol Directly Targets COX-2 to Inhibit Carcinogenesis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2562941/

[61] The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on COX-2 expression in human colorectal cancer: a promising therapeutic strategy – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28338176

[62] Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins attenuate inflammation in vitro and in vivo by inhibition of NF-kB and STAT3 signaling – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5675642/

[63] Two new dammarane-type triterpene saponins from Korean red ginseng and their anti-inflammatory effects – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29100799

[64] The Role of Selenium in Inflammation and Immunity: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Opportunities – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3277928/

[65] Selenium regulates cyclooxygenase-2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in colon cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17047069

[66] Vitamin D improves inflammatory bowel disease outcomes: Basic science and clinical review – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4009525/

[67] Vitamin D and Breast Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267821/

[68] Natural Forms of Vitamin E as Effective Agents for Cancer Prevention and Therapy – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29141970

[69] Natural forms of vitamin E: metabolism, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and the role in disease prevention and therapy – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4120831/

[70] Evaluation of Antioxidant Intakes in Relation to Inflammatory Markers Expression Within the Normal Breast Tissue of Breast Cancer Patients – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27903840

[71] Zinc is an Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Agent: Its Role in Human Health – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4429650/

[72] Cyanidin-3-O-ß-glucoside inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in mouse mastitis model – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4031942/

[73] Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of mucilage of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) on adjuvant induced arthritic rats – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567576911004528

[74] The Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Gene Expression Related to Inflammation, Insulin, and Lipids in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28922099

[75] Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490534/

[76] Red yeast rice improves lipid pattern, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and vascular remodeling parameters in moderately hypercholesterolemic Italian subjects – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890351

[77] Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations in active and passive smokers: influence of antioxidant supplementation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15047680

[78] Cross-over study of influence of oral vitamin C supplementation on inflammatory status in maintenance hemodialysis patients – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840610/’

[79] Effect of vitamin C on inflammation and metabolic markers in hypertensive and/or diabetic obese adults: a randomized controlled trial – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4492638/

GET MY BEST TIPS on getting through breast cancer and preventing recurrences by signing up for my free e-newsletters and e-books on the right. You can also “like” me on Facebook (Marnie Clark, Breast Health Coach) to get my inspirational snippets, news and updates. I promise to do my utmost to keep you informed and empowered on your healing journey… and beyond.

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 1

Epigenetic Factors to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk – Part 1

Epigenetic factors to reduce breast cancer risk has been a particular interest of mine ever since I found out that I had breast cancer in 2004. I have studied everything I could lay my hands on with reference to epigenetic factors. The word means “above genetics” and is the science of how genes can be expressed differently using external factors without changing the DNA structure of those genes.

The reason epigenetics interests me so greatly is because I lost both my mother and my grandmother to breast cancer. When I was subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer myself, I was quite concerned about the so-called genetic aspect of this disease. I spoke about this with a friend of mine and I can remember saying to her “What if everything I’m doing to get well and stay well turns out not to be enough if I’m genetically predisposed to breast cancer?” Her response was to introduce me to a scientist named Bruce Lipton and a whole new way of thinking. Dr Lipton’s book “The Biology of Belief” helped me to understand that we do not have to be slaves to our genes. The book introduced me to the  concept of epigenetic factors which can influence the expression of genes.

I learned that nutrition, thoughts, exercise and quite a few other factors can influence our genes in a very powerful way. What an immensely liberating thought – that we mere humans can play a huge role in turning off the very genes that might otherwise predispose us to breast cancer.

In a series of articles, I will be sharing some of the epigenetic nutrients that provide us with the ability to alter genetic expression, thus possibly preventing or reversing breast cancer. From my best count, here are the best 11 ways they do this (and one article will be devoted to each subject):

Epigenetic nutrients can:

1. Control regulatory genes
2. Prevent damage to DNA
3. Prevent rapid cell proliferation
4. Ease or prevent cancer-promoting inflammation
5. Change malignant cells into healthy cells
6. Restore receptors on cells
7. Inhibit excess estrogen production
8. Trigger cancer cell death (apoptosis)
9. Block growth factors
10. Block angiogenesis
11. Prevent metastasis

PART 1 – NUTRIENTS THAT CAN CONTROL REGULATORY GENES

Through genetic testing, we know that there are a number of gene defects that can predispose a person to certain diseases, including breast cancer. There are quite literally hundreds of ways genes can be influenced to control, slow or stop breast cancer growth. Any of these genes, when faulty, damaged or disrupted, can put us at a higher risk for breast cancer. Fortunately, there are a number of nutrients that have epigenetic targets in cancer cells and they block these processes, and can help to prevent carcinogenesis (formation of cancer cells).

Here are but a few of the most-studied genes involved with breast cancer:

MTHFR

The MTHFR gene plays a critical role in DNA methylation. This is a much-studied and ever-expanding subject, especially for breast cancer patients. According to 2012 research done at the University of Mississippi, a number of genes become abnormally methylated in breast cancer patients. [1] Methylation involves the addition or removal of a methyl group (CH3) to a substance so that it can metabolized. Methylation takes place daily inside cells, millions of times,  and requires the presence of enzymes known as DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) to catalyze (cause or accelerate) the process.

For example, methylation is required to convert the neurotransmitter serotonin into melatonin. Methylation is involved in converting stronger estrogens into less aggressive estrogens and that is one of the reasons it is included in this discussion. MTHFR working properly means you can break down circulating estrogen and excrete it, otherwise it can build up to dangerously high levels and this increases breast cancer risk. Hypermethylation is known to be associated with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. [2]

The problem isn’t just with estrogen, however. MTHFR also provides the directions to produce an enzyme called methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, which converts inactive folate (vitamin B9) to its active form, levomefolic acid, to enable cells to utilize it. An inability to convert folate into levomefolic acid affects many metabolic processes in the body. Active folate is essential for healthy cell division, DNA synthesis and repair, heart health, good vision, brain development, memory and mood, and so much more.

Helpful Nutrients:

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate – EGCG – found in found in amla, black tea, carob flour, cranberries (raw), green tea, hazelnuts, oolong tea, peas, pecans, pomegranates [3]
Curcumin  – from turmeric [4]
Genistein – found in chickpeas, dates, kidney beans, lupin, peanuts, peas, pomegranates, quinoa, soybeans & soy products [5]
Lycopene – found in apricots, asparagus, beets, bell peppers (red), bitter melon, carrots, cucumbers, dragon fruit, goji, grapefruit, guava, mangoes, noni, papaya, passionfruit, persimmons, pistachio nuts, tomatoes, red beans, watermelon [5]
Resveratrol – found in acai, black beans, black raspberries, blueberries, cassava, cranberries, dark chocolate, grapes (red, not green grapes), lentils, lingonberries, mulberries, peanuts, peanut butter, pistachio nuts, raspberries, strawberries [6]
Caffeic acid – found in adzuki beans, amaranth, apples, apricots, arugula (rocket), asparagus, barley, bee propolis, beets, bitter melon, blackberries, black raspberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, buckwheat, buckwheat bran, brown rice, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cauliflower, celery, chia seeds, chickpeas, chilies and hot peppers, coffee, collard greens, corn, cranberries, daikon, dandelion greens, dates, durian, eggplant, einkorn, flaxseed, goji/wolfberry, grapefruit, grapes, graviola, hazelnuts, honeydew melon, kale, kiwi, lemons, lentils, lima beans, lingonberries, lychee, mandarins, mangosteen, maqui, mulberries, nectarines, oats, papaya, peaches, pears, peanuts, peas, pine nuts, pineapple, plums, pomegranates, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, radishes, raspberries, sorghum bran, soybeans, spinach, strawberries, sunflower seeds, tomatoes, turnips, wasabi [7]
Chlorogenic acid – found in almonds, apples, artichoke, avocados, bell peppers, bitter melon, black beans, black raspberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, carrots, cassava, cherries, chia seeds, chickpeas, chilies and hot peppers, coffee beans, cranberries, dandelion greens, durian, eggplant, figs, goji, grapefruit, graviola, guava, kiwi, kohlrabi, lemons, lentils, lingonberries, lychee, mulberries, nectarines, passionfruit, peaches, peanuts, pears, plums, pomegranates, raspberries, rice bran, spinach, sunflower seeds, tomatoes [7]

BRCA1, BRCA2

Much-studied genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 stand for breast cancer type 1 and type 2 susceptibility proteins. They provide instructions for the creation of proteins that repair damaged DNA and act as tumor suppressors. Having a mutated BRCA1/2 gene has been shown to put a person at a higher risk for breast cancer, ovarian and some other cancers. It is estimated that around 10% of breast cancer cases are caused by mutations in these genes. DNA methylation can be involved here too – a 2014 Chinese study investigating the regulation of DNMT1 (discussed above) in BRCA1-mutated breast cancer found that a transcription factor known as E2F1 was hypermethylated. Another key factor is a process known as histone deacetylation. Without getting into huge detail requiring a chemistry degree to understand it, acetylation of histones involves DNA binding proteins, activation of gene transcription and other cellular functions.  [8] Fortunately, there are a good many nutrients that can play a protective role for those with BRCA1/2 mutations:

Helpful Nutrients:

Genistein – found in chickpeas, dates, kidney beans, lupin, peanuts, peas, pomegranates, quinoa, soybeans & soy products [9]
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate – EGCG, found in amla, black tea, carob flour, cranberries (raw), green tea, hazelnuts, oolong tea, peas, pecans, pomegranates [9]
Soy foods [10]
Sulforaphane – from broccoli sprouts, cruciferous vegetables [11]
Garlic [11]
Caffeic acid – found in adzuki beans, amaranth, apples, apricots, arugula (rocket), asparagus, barley, bee propolis, beets, bitter melon, blackberries, black raspberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, buckwheat, buckwheat bran, brown rice, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cauliflower, celery, chia seeds, chickpeas, chilies and hot peppers, coffee, collard greens, corn, cranberries, daikon, dandelion greens, dates, durian, eggplant, einkorn, flaxseed, goji/wolfberry, grapefruit, grapes, graviola, hazelnuts, honeydew melon, kale, kiwi, lemons, lentils, lima beans, lingonberries, lychee, mandarins, mangosteen, maqui, mulberries, nectarines, oats, papaya, peaches, pears, peanuts, peas, pine nuts, pineapple, plums, pomegranates, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, radishes, raspberries, sorghum bran, soybeans, spinach, strawberries, sunflower seeds, tomatoes, turnips, wasabi [7]
Chlorogenic acid – found in almonds, apples, artichoke, avocados, bell peppers, bitter melon, black beans, black raspberries, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, carrots, cassava, cherries, chia seeds, chickpeas, chilies and hot peppers, coffee beans, cranberries, dandelion greens, durian, eggplant, figs, goji, grapefruit, graviola, guava, kiwi, kohlrabi, lemons, lentils, lingonberries, lychee, mulberries, nectarines, passionfruit, peaches, peanuts, pears, plums, pomegranates, raspberries, rice bran, spinach, sunflower seeds, tomatoes [7]
Resveratrol – found in acai, black beans, black raspberries, blueberries, cassava, cranberries, dark chocolate, grapes (red, not green grapes), lentils, lingonberries, mulberries, peanuts, peanut butter, pistachio nuts, raspberries, strawberries [12]
Vitamin D3 [13]

Special note for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers – when taking B-vitamins, carriers of the BRCA1/2 mutation would be well advised to consult a functional medicine doctor or integrative oncologist specifically trained to deal with this genetic mutation, because there are conflicting studies on the helpfulness of B vitamins for carriers of this mutation. One study reported that high folate levels were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers [14] while another study indicated high folate levels were protective. [15]

Remember too that physical activity has also been found to be associated with a reduction in risk of breast cancer for those with BRCA1/2 mutations. [16]

P53

P53 is a tumor suppressor gene, regulating cell division by keeping cells from proliferating (growing and dividing too fast) or in an uncontrolled way. So you want this one to be working because when P53 is faulty, there is seen to be an associated increase in cancer risk. P53 is considered to be one of the most frequently mutated genes leading to cancer development.

Helpful Nutrients:

Quercetin – found in adzuki beans, almonds, amla, Anasazi beans, apples with peels, apricots, artichoke, arugula (rocket), asparagus, avocados, bananas, barley, beets, bell peppers, bilberries, black beans, black-eyed peas, black raspberries, black rice, black tea, blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, bok choy, Brazil nuts, broccoli, brown rice, Brussel sprouts, buckwheat, buckwheat bran, cantaloupe, capers, cauliflower, celery, cherries, chickpeas, chia seeds, chilies and hot peppers, cocoa powder (unsweetened), collard greens, corn, cranberries, cucumbers, daikon, dandelion greens, dates, dill, dragon fruit, durian, eggplant, elderberries, figs, gingko biloba, goji, grapefruit, grapes, graviola, green beans, green pepper, green tea, guava, honey, honeydew melon, horseradish, kale, kiwi, kohlrabi, lemons, lentils, lettuce (esp Romaine), lima beans, limes, lingonberries, lychee, mangoes, maqui, mulberries, nectarines, noni, onions, parsley, passionfruit, peaches, pears with peels, peas, peppers, persimmons, pineapple, plums, pomegranates, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, radishes, raspberries, red onions, rutabaga, sage, sesame seeds, shallots, spelt, spinach, strawberries, sunflower seeds, tea (black and green), tomatoes, turnips, watercress, yellow snap beans
[17]
Zinc – found in adzuki beans, almonds, amaranth, amla, apples, apricots, artichoke, arugula, asparagus, avocados, bananas, barley, beets, bilberries, black beans, black-eyed peas, black raspberries, blackberries, bok choy, Brazil nuts, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cashews, cauliflower, cherries, chia seeds, chickpeas, collard greens, corn, dandelion greens, dates, durian, eggplant, einkorn, flaxseed, grapefruit, grapes, guava, hemp seeds, honeydew melon, horseradish, jamun, kidney/cannellini beans, kiwi fruit, lentils, lima beans, lingonberries, lupin, macadamia nuts, mangoes, mangosteen, mulberries, nectarines, noni, oats, oranges, papaya, peaches, peanuts, pears, peas, persimmons, pine nuts, pineapple, pistachio nuts, plums, pomegranates, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, radishes, raspberries, red beans, rutabaga, sesame seeds, soybeans, spelt, spinach, strawberries, sunflower seeds, tangerines, tomatoes, turnips, walnuts, wasabi, watermelon, wheat bran [18]
Apigenin – found in artichoke, asparagus, bell peppers, brown rice, cabbage, celery, chamomile tea, chickpeas, chilies and hot peppers, cucumber, dandelion greens, dates, eggplant, elderberries, grapefruit, guava, lemons, limes, lupin, onions, oranges, parsley, passionfruit, peas, pigeon pea leaves, pomegranates, pumpkin seeds, radishes, rice bran, sorghum bran, spelt, strawberries, sunflower seeds, watercress [19]
Vitamin D3 [20]
Arenobufagin – isolated from Chan Su, a Traditional Chinese Medicine herb, aka Venenum Bufonis [21] (please work with a TCM doctor when using this)
Berberine – found in goldenseal, barberry [22]

EZH2

EZH2 is a gene that has been shown in research to be a marker for more aggressive breast cancer. One study indicated “Aberrant expression of EZH2 has been associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in cancer patients.” [23]

Helpful Nutrients:

Omega 3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) [23]
Ginsenoside RH2 – from Korean red ginseng [24]
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) – found in found in amla, black tea, carob flour, cranberries (raw), green tea, hazelnuts, oolong tea, peas, pecans, pomegranates [25]
Curcumin – found in turmeric [26]
Sulforaphane – found in cruciferous vegetables, ie arugula (rocket), bok choy, broccoli, broccoli sprouts, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, daikon, horseradish, kale, kohlrabi, radishes, rutabaga, turnips, watercress [27]
Berberine – found in goldenseal, barberry [28]
Tanshindiol – from the Traditional Chinese Medicine herb, Danshen, or Salvia miltiorrhiza [29]
Melatonin – found in bananas, barley, black rice, cherries (esp sour), ginger, grapes, oats, tomatoes, walnuts [30]

This is by no means an exhaustive list of regulatory genes, nor the nutrients that help to influence them. The purpose of this article is merely to inform you of some of the ones that do exist and as I find more, I will add them to this list. As you look through these lists of epigenetic nutrients, you begin to notice the repetition of a few, right? I think it’s pretty clear that those are the ones to focus upon and add to your daily protocols.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Please do not attempt to heal cancer using only a few nutrients. Cancer is a complex process and requires a multi-disciplinary approach. It’s always best to work with an oncologist and/or integrative oncologist and/or oncology naturopath and/or functional medicine doctor to achieve the best results.

References:

[1] Epigenetic events associated with breast cancer and their prevention by dietary components targeting the epigenome – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21992498

[2] DNA methylation and hormone receptor status in breast cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4754852/

[3] Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4997373/

[4] Epigenetic diet: impact on the epigenome and cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197720/

[5] Modulation of gene methylation by genistein or lycopene in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18181168

[6] Trans-resveratrol alters mammary promoter hypermethylation in women at increased risk for breast cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3392022/

[7] Inhibition of DNA methylation by caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, two common catechol-containing coffee polyphenols – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16081510

[8] Regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 transcription in BRCA1-mutated breast cancer: a novel crosstalk between E2F1 motif hypermethylation and loss of histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3936805/

[9] Reversal Effects of Genistein and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Repression of BRCA-1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells with Activated AhR – http://www.fasebj.org/content/30/1_Supplement/42.6.short

[10] Dietary intake and breast cancer among carriers and noncarriers of BRCA mutations in the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer Study – http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2013/10/23/ajcn.112.057760.abstract

[11] Modulation of Histone Deacetylase Activity by Dietary Isothiocyanates and Allyl Sulfides: Studies with Sulforaphane and Garlic Organosulfur Compounds – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2701665/

[12] Acetylated STAT3 is crucial for methylation of tumor-suppressor gene promoters and inhibition by resveratrol results in demethylation – http://www.pnas.org/content/109/20/7765

[13] Cooperation between BRCA1 and vitamin D is critical for histone acetylation of the p21waf1 promoter and for growth inhibition of breast cancer cells and cancer stem-like cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4322975/

[14] Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 and breast cancer risk in BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutation carriers: a prospective study – http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2016/07/26/ajcn.116.133470

[15] The effects of plasma folate and other B vitamins on breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers – http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/75/15_Supplement/LB-185

[16] Effects of lifestyle and diet as modifiers of risk of breast cancer (BC) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers – http://ascopubs.org/doi/abs/10.1200/JCO.2017.35.15_suppl.1505

[17] Anticarcinogenic action of quercetin by downregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) via induction of p53 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26311153

[18] Metalloregulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53: zinc mediates the renaturation of p53 after exposure to metal chelators in vitro and in intact cells – http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v19/n46/full/1203907a.html

[19] Evidence for activation of mutated p53 by apigenin in human pancreatic cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3277744/

[20] 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates T lymphocyte proliferation through activation of P53 and inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in children with Kawasaki disease – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28925469

[21] Arenobufagin Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells via the Noxa-Related Pathway – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28892004

[22] Berberine Enhances Chemosensitivity and Induces Apoptosis Through Dose-orchestrated AMPK Signaling in Breast Cancer – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28775788

[23] Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress expression of EZH2 in breast cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2832544/

[24] 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh2 suppresses proliferation and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting EZH2 to regulate CDKN2A-2B gene cluster transcription – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28928088

[25] (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and EZH2 inhibitor GSK343 have similar inhibitory effects and mechanisms of action on colorectal cancer cells – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28925507

[26] Effect and mechanism of curcumin on EZH2 – miR-101 regulatory feedback loop in multiple myeloma – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28322158

[27] The Ezh2 Polycomb Group Protein Drives an Aggressive Phenotype in Melanoma Cancer Stem Cells and is a Target of Diet Derived Sulforaphane – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4919248/

[28] Naturally occurring anti-cancer agents targeting EZH2 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28323035

[29] Biological evaluation of tanshindiols as EZH2 histone methyltransferase inhibitors – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24767850

[30] Melatonin inhibits tumorigenicity of glioblastoma stem-like cells via the AKT-EZH2-STAT3 signaling axis – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121240

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